In the first chapter of the first chapter, before the first chapter of the first chapter. one
Chapter 2 the development and evolution of lead and lead-acid batteries in China.
2 2.1 use and distribution of lead. two
2.1.1 main uses of lead … two
2.1.2 the main distribution areas of global lead resources … two
2.1.3 Distribution of lead ore resources in China. three
2.1.4 Distribution of recycled lead industry in China. three
2.2 Application and development of lead in industry and people's livelihood. three
Chapter 3 working principle and failure mode of lead-acid battery. three
Chapter 4 the collection status of waste lead-acid batteries in China. four
4.1 Collection policies for waste lead-acid batteries in developed countries. four
4.2 Collection of domestic waste lead-acid batteries. four
4.3 National specific policy measures on the collection of waste lead-acid batteries. six
4.4 some suggestions on the effective collection of waste lead-acid batteries. six
Chapter 5 current situation of waste lead-acid battery recycling industry. seven
5.1 National policies and measures for the recycled lead industry. seven
5.2 the main technical methods for the regeneration and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries. seven
5.2.1 method of fire smelting treatment. nine
5.2.2 Recycling treatment process of waste lead-acid battery. nine
5.2.3 disassembly and separation process of waste lead-acid battery. ten
5.2.4 Wet metallurgical treatment method. ten
Chapter 6 Development trend of waste lead-acid Battery Collection and Recycling Industry. ten
6.1 improve the laws and regulations of the waste lead-acid battery collection and recycling industry. ten
6.2 promote the transformation and upgrading of waste lead-acid batteries and improve the level of technology and technology. ten
6.3 reduce the cost of collecting waste lead-acid batteries. eleven
6.4 how to promote the development of collection and recycling of waste lead-acid batteries. eleven
6.5 severely crack down on the illegal collection, transport and disposal of waste lead-acid batteries. eleven
Chapter 7 conclusion. twelve
Refer to Wen Xian. thirteen
Thank you. fourteen
Chapter 1 antecedent
Lead-acid battery has the advantages of stable and superior performance, safe and reliable use, high performance-to-price ratio and so on. It is widely used in transportation industry, communication, energy storage, logistics and other industries. According to the statistics of relevant industries by the beginning of 2019, the number of motor vehicles in China has reached 330 million. This proves that there is a very large market for lead-acid batteries only in the motor vehicle industry. Lead-acid batteries generally have a life of about 2 years under normal use conditions. Therefore, an equal number of waste lead-acid batteries will be produced. However, waste lead-acid batteries contain about 60% of metal lead and 20% of sulfuric acid liquid. If it is not collected and used effectively, it will pose a serious threat to the ecological environment. Studies have shown that once the waste acid seeps into the soil, it will destroy the soil and cause groundwater pollution. At the same time, excessive lead will cause anemia, abdominal pain, memory loss, serious damage to the nervous system and other hazards. Waste lead-acid battery is not only toxic, but also urban mineral resources. Lead is one of the ten major non-ferrous metals, which has high utilization value and economic value. With the continuous exploitation of lead ore resources in China, the reserves of primary lead are not much, which can no longer meet the demand of domestic industry for lead: in 2018, the output of refined lead in China is about 5.25 million tons, the output of primary lead is about 3 million tons, and the amount of recycled lead is 2.25 million tons. According to this development rate, the lead ore resources in China will be basically exploited in 10 years' time. If we do not speed up the recycling of waste lead-acid batteries and lead-containing waste, there will be a serious shortage of lead in China. Therefore, considering the protection of ecological environment and promoting the recycling of resources, the collection and recycling of waste lead-acid batteries and lead-containing waste is a major event of the national economy and the people's livelihood. Figure 1 shows the growth of recycled lead production in China from 2001 to 2018.
Chapter 2 Development of lead and lead-acid batteries in China
2.1 use and distribution of lead
2.1.1 main uses of lead;
Lead has the advantages of good anticorrosion and easy to be made into alloys with other metals. Lead-based alloys and other compounds are widely used in battery, cable sheath, lead pipe and lead plate, lead dan, chemical industry, lead oxide, ray protection and so on.
2.1.2 main distribution areas of global lead resources
The global lead resources are mainly distributed in Brokenhill and Ellula in Wales, Siberia in eastern Europe and Russia, central and western China in Asia, New South, Woodland, Mont Issa, Queensland, Australia and so on. About 20 relatively rich lead mineral areas; The countries with large global lead reserves mainly account for 87% of the world's lead reserves in Russia, the United States, Peru, Mexico, Australia and China. Australia accounts for 40 per cent, China 16 per cent, Russia 11 per cent, the United States 6 per cent, Peru 8 per cent, Mexico 6 per cent and other countries 13 per cent. Figure 2 shows the national distribution of global lead reserves.
2.1.3 Distribution of lead ore resources in China
According to the relevant industries, the identified reserves of lead minerals in China by 2017 are 89.67 million tons, an increase of 4.2023 million tons over 2016, and China's lead reserves in 2018 will be about 14.7 million tons. Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Hunan, Guangdong and Gansu are the main distribution places of lead and zinc resources in China, and the reserves of these five provinces account for 72 per cent of the whole country. Through the development and construction since the reform and opening up, China has given birth to five major lead and zinc production bases, such as Liangguang, Dianchuan, Northwest, Northeast and Hunan.
2.1.4 Distribution of recycled lead industry in China
The production of lead-acid batteries in China is large, and the amount of lead used in lead-acid batteries accounts for about 82% of the total lead consumption in China. Recycled lead production accounted for 45 per cent of refined lead production compared with the same period last year. Compared with the original lead, the waste lead-acid battery in the lead smelting process has low energy consumption and less pollutant emission, which meets the requirements of energy saving and environmental protection. According to the statistics of relevant management departments, by 2018, the treatment capacity of recycled lead in China has reached nearly 12 million tons, and there are 60 licensed renewable lead enterprises. Fig. 3 shows the production capacity distribution of recycled lead in various provinces and cities in China.
2.2 Application and development of lead in industry and people's livelihood
In recent years, with the deepening of reform and opening up, the process of urbanization and industrialization in China has led to the consumption of lead, accelerated the development of China's lead industry, but also led to the development of the lead industry. Lead has a wide range of applications, among which people's livelihood contact is at most the use and demand of lead-acid batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in our lives because of its advantages such as economy, stability, safety, renewable utilization and so on. Small to our substitute tools electric bicycles, tricycles, household backup power supply and private cars, to our large energy storage system, logistics, backup power supply system and other industries can not do without lead-acid battery. Because it has the advantage that can not be replaced by other resources, it makes the global and Chinese market broad space, and promotes the rapid development of lead. At the same time, it has also promoted the rapid development of primary lead and recycled lead industry. Due to the growth caused by demand, China's lead industry has increased steadily, giving birth to the formation of several major lead industry bases.
Chapter 3 working principle and failure mode of lead-acid battery
Lead-acid battery is a kind of power battery with cyclic charge and discharge, which is composed of anode, cathode and sulfuric acid solution as electrolyte. The chemical reaction formula of charging and discharging through material conversion is as follows: Pb+PbO2+H2SO4 / 2PbSO4+2H2O reaction is a reversible reaction, and the reaction is carried out to the right during discharge to form PbSO4. In normal use, the charge and discharge can be repeated, but after a long period of use, the lead sulfate will gradually cover the battery plate with the increase of the number of cycles, so that the conductivity of the electrode plate will gradually weaken, resulting in the inability to charge and discharge. Therefore, there are different reasons for the scrapping of different lead batteries: one is that the vehicle starting battery is due to the vehicle charging or maintenance is not in place, The lead-acid battery is scrapped due to the short circuit and open circuit of the lead-acid battery due to the serious and incorrect use of the plate deointment. Most of the lead-acid batteries are scrapped within the designed service life, which are caused by the phenomenon of sulfation. Especially the private car, does not drive much, starts frequently, charges insufficient, but does not carry on the maintenance on time, causes the battery to be in the power deficit state for a long time, it is very easy to form sulfation and make the battery scrapped prematurely; one is the reason for the scrapping of electric bicycles, which is relatively complicated. In addition to the end-of-life caused by sulfation, the incorrect use in peacetime: high current rate discharge, excessive charging, long-term excessive discharge, resulting in the scrapping of lead-acid batteries, also accounted for a certain proportion. The other is that the energy storage battery is easy to be dehydrated and vulcanized by long-term floating charge because it is mostly used as a standby power supply. That is, it is often said that the battery is broken, not used bad; mainly in these aspects, the above aspects are the main reasons for the scrapping of lead-acid batteries.
Chapter 4 current situation of collection of waste lead-acid batteries in China
4.1 Policy on the collection of waste lead-acid batteries in developed countries
In the collection and recovery of waste lead-acid batteries, Europe and the United States and other countries have begun to regulate the collection and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries have a better recovery system and policy, and accumulated a wealth of experience. If the United States implements the deposit system, users will have to charge a high recovery deposit when purchasing lead-acid batteries, forcing users to hand over scrapped lead-acid batteries to their fingers.
The fixed recovery point will be recovered, otherwise the deposit will not be refunded. In Germany, lead-acid battery manufacturers are required by law to "sell and collect" waste lead-acid batteries in the process of sale and collection, otherwise the sale of lead-acid batteries will be banned. Compared with foreign countries, there is still a big gap in legal recovery and recycling in China.
4.2 Collection of waste lead-acid batteries in China
According to the statistical results of relevant industry organizations, the output of lead-acid batteries in China is 181.23 million kVAh, in 2018, and the growth of lead-acid battery production in China is shown in figure 4. China has become a major producer of lead-acid batteries and renewable lead in the world, and the output of lead-acid batteries accounts for about 40% of the global output. In recent years, although lithium-ion batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries and other new energy batteries have developed rapidly, lead-acid batteries still occupy the mainstream of the market because of their safety and performance-to-price ratio, and the demand for lead-acid batteries will remain stable in the future. With the industrial development of our country, the application field of lead-acid batteries will also be expanded. It indirectly leads to the increasing demand for lead-acid batteries, which promotes the expansion of production capacity and promotes the sustainable development of lead-acid battery production industry.
With the rapid development of lead-acid battery industry, a large number of waste lead-acid batteries will be produced in China every year. According to the relevant industry data, the number of waste lead-acid batteries produced in 2018 is about 6 million tons, and is increasing year by year. How to achieve legal collection and reduce the pollution to the environment caused by the inflow of waste lead-acid batteries into illegal channels is a heavy and arduous task. From the actual situation of collecting waste lead-acid batteries in China, there is still a long way to go from the recovery rate of waste lead-acid batteries stipulated by the state. At present, most of the recovery channels of waste lead-acid batteries in China are individual recyclers, which leads to the difficulty of supervision after the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries, resulting in a large number of waste lead-acid batteries flowing into the illegal recovery station. due to the backward technology of these recovery stations, the pollution prevention and control facilities are poor, and there is no legal qualification procedure. At the same time, the lack of environmental awareness and non-standard, the recovery and treatment of waste lead-acid batteries is very disadvantageous and seriously affect the management of the whole industry. Individual households sell the recycled lead-acid batteries to some purchase stations that are not qualified to recover the waste lead-acid batteries. During the whole process of the waste lead-acid batteries recovered by the purchase stations, there are no special protective measures at all. At the same time, these acquisition stations drill the recovered waste lead-acid batteries and dump the sulfuric acid electrolyte directly into the river or soil, resulting in serious environmental pollution.
In addition to the self-employed and purchasing stations of waste lead-acid batteries, there are some legal and standardized professional qualification enterprises in the collection of waste batteries. However, there are not many such legal recovery enterprises, although the annual recovery volume is increasing, but these enterprises carry out the legal recovery road is difficult, the main problems are as follows: first, it is difficult to standardize the collection, so far the legal collection, transfer and utilization of waste lead batteries is less than 15% of the production of waste lead batteries in that year. In 2015, in 15 provinces and cities, 32 licensed units recovered 566500 tons (about 15 per cent), indicating that the market of individual recyclers and unlicensed recyclers was controlled by about 85 per cent. Second, the entry threshold of collection enterprises is high, and in recent years, the state has not achieved obvious results in the implementation of the "Program for the extension of producer responsibility system" and the "pilot work Program for centralized Collection of lead Battery production Enterprises." many provinces have only collected dozens of tons of waste lead-acid batteries in the pilot two to three years. Some provinces have not yet participated in the pilot, and there is not even a legally qualified waste lead-acid battery collection enterprise, resulting in the production of waste lead-acid batteries it is difficult to find legal institutions to trade, forcing the waste lead-acid batteries to be bought to unlicensed purchasing stations. Third, there are many restrictions on the inter-provincial transfer management system. Qualified units need to cross-provincial collection, transfer and treatment of waste lead-acid batteries, which is more difficult, affecting the enthusiasm of collection and disposal enterprises, so that it is convenient to take risks to unqualified self-employed or purchasing stations to purchase waste lead-acid battery raw materials.
4.3 specific national policies and measures on the collection of waste lead-acid batteries
Since the State Council issued the Program for the implementation of the extended producer responsibility system in December 2016, and in January 2019, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, together with the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Transport, jointly issued the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of pollution caused by waste lead batteries, on 24 January 2019, The Ministry of Ecology and Environment, in conjunction with the Ministry of Transport, has issued the pilot work Program for centralized Collection and Trans-Regional Transportation system for lead Battery production Enterprises and the Technical Specification for recovery of waste lead Battery on March 25, 2019. Relevant state departments have repeatedly issued documents to promote the development of lead-acid battery recovery system. In the "extended producer responsibility system implementation plan", it is clearly required to establish a product life cycle traceability system with lead-acid battery manufacturers, requiring production enterprises to jointly recover or entrust a recovery model, adopt independent recovery, and support production enterprises to increase the recovery rate by means of "exchanging the old for the new" and "selling, receiving and receiving one" through the sales network. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Ecological Environment, as of June 2019, there were 22 provinces (regions) with a certain working foundation, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Fujian, Jiangxi, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Hainan, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Hunan, etc. City) to participate in the declaration of the pilot work Program for centralized Collection and Cross-regional Transportation system for lead Battery production Enterprises, It is proved that the guidance of policy direction is of great significance to environmental protection.
4.4 some suggestions on the effective collection of waste lead-acid batteries
The collection and recycling of waste lead-acid batteries is related to the environment and people's livelihood. For this reason, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the risk of environmental pollution caused by the illegal recovery of waste lead batteries: (1) to advocate or promote the most effective way of a certain behavior, through the establishment of relevant recycling policies and measures, from the policy and legal level to provide a basis for the collection of waste lead-acid batteries. Combined with some good pilot projects or provinces, summed up a set of better recovery (system) model. (2) to establish a social award reporting mechanism to encourage the public to participate in the supervision and reporting of environmental violations such as illegal collection and illegal smelting of recycled lead. (3) it is suggested that the pilot enterprises should standardize the amount of battery recovery and bring it into the scope of the implementation of the current preferential fiscal and tax policies, that is, the use of standardized recovery statistical data as the basis for the implementation of fiscal policy. Under the supervision of environmental protection, the collection and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries that fulfill their social responsibility and meet the requirements of environmental protection can enjoy preferential policies. That is, fiscal and taxation policies should reflect the purpose and characteristics of green environmental protection. (4) to implement the extended producer responsibility system (EPR),) to strengthen the connection from production to sale, to collection, and then to processing and utilization, so as to realize the closed-loop management of the industrial chain and achieve seamless docking. (5) using "Internet" technical means to enable the collection of each waste lead-acid battery to achieve the purpose of "traceable, traceable in quantity and traceable in responsibility", so as to improve the collection and utilization rate of waste lead-acid battery, in order to effectively reduce the risk of prevention and control of environmental pollution.
Chapter 5 status of Recycling and Utilization of waste lead-acid batteries
5.1 National policies and measures for the recycled lead industry
In recent years, lead pollution incidents often occur, causing the state government departments and all sectors of the community to pay close attention to the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries and the recycling of lead industry. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the National Development and Reform Commission and other relevant ministries and commissions have come out of Taiwan one after another (as shown in figure 4) to promote the healthy and accelerated development of the industry. From 2011 to 2019, the relevant policies and standards promulgated by the state on the recycled lead industry involve raising the entry threshold of the industry, strengthening the treatment of three wastes, and eliminating backward production capacity and technology. The implementation of the relevant policies has proved the great importance and determination of the state and governments at all levels to the renewable lead industry. As shown in figure 5, the recycled lead industry issued policies from 2011 to 2018.
Figure 5 policies for the recycled lead industry since 2011 to 2018
From the policy planning requirements of non-ferrous metal industry, lead-acid battery and recycled lead industry promulgated by the state, it is of great significance to promote the normative development of lead-acid battery and recycled lead industry, strictly control pollution prevention and protection of ecological environment.
5.2 main technical methods for regeneration and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries
With the increasing collection and treatment capacity of waste lead-acid batteries in China, a higher standard for the utilization of recycled lead is put forward, which requires enterprises to establish a sound management system. In recent years, the recycling technology of waste lead-acid battery has been improved rapidly. at present, there are mainly two kinds of recycling technology in China, including fire smelting and hydrometallurgy.
5.2.1 method of fire smelting treatment
The most widely used waste lead-acid battery utilization industry in China is pyro-smelting, the main specific processes include: disassembly-separation-smelting-refining, waste lead-acid battery treatment and utilization of the main production process, as shown in figure 5. Fire smelting refers to the production process in which metal is extracted from raw materials by means of combustion at high temperature. The use of high temperature in pyro-smelting not only requires higher equipment, but also requires high smelting environment standard, high temperature and high back-end flue gas treatment when using pyro-smelting to treat waste lead-acid battery.
5.2.2 Recycling treatment process of waste lead-acid battery
5.2.3 disassembly and separation process of waste lead-acid battery
The method of disassembly and separation is that the wet crushing separation system is used to pretreat the waste lead-acid battery, and the whole waste lead-acid battery is transported to the automatic crushing system through the conveyor belt through the mechanical grab, and then the waste lead-acid battery is broken, and then the various parts of the battery are broken and classified by hydraulic separation, and then all kinds of lead paste, grid and plastic are recycled and reused. Through the use of automatic disassembly and separation system, the recovery rate of lead metal can be increased to more than 95%, and the waste of materials and the secondary pollution of lead can be effectively avoided. At the same time, it can improve labor efficiency and improve labor hygiene conditions, and can effectively control the unorganized emission of the whole workshop in the production process, and realize the advantages of organized ventilation, purification and treatment of emissions and so on.
5.2.4 hydrometallurgical treatment method
Hydrometallurgy refers to the technical process of extracting metal compounds from raw materials by using some solvents and with the help of chemical reactions in solvents. Hydrometallurgy is still in the initial stage of research or industrialization in the waste lead-acid battery treatment industry. the advantage of this process is that there are less heavy metals and sulfur dioxide emissions in the treatment process, but a large number of solvent wastewater will be produced in the process of treatment. High treatment cost and other shortcomings.
Chapter 6 Development trend of Collection and Recycling of waste lead-acid batteries
6.1 improve the laws and regulations of the collection and recycling industry of waste lead-acid batteries
In the collection and recycling management of waste lead-acid batteries, the state needs to establish the main responsibility for the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries through more effective laws and regulations. In addition, through the collection of waste lead-acid batteries, we should give full play to the role of industry organizations, unilaterally rely on the strength of government departments or enterprises is still limited, we should give full play to the enthusiasm of all sectors of society for the participation of the whole people in environmental protection, and jointly promote the better development of the collection and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries.
6.2 promote the transformation and upgrading of waste lead-acid batteries and improve the level of technology and technology
In recent years, with the gradual strengthening of the supervision of the waste lead-acid battery industry by the competent departments of the government, a large number of unqualified illegal lead smelting black factories have been investigated and shut down, so that the number of waste lead-acid batteries gradually transferred to qualified recycled lead enterprises has increased, thus there are new requirements and threshold for recycled lead enterprises. According to the Regulation conditions of recycled lead Industry promulgated on December 5, 2016, strict standards and requirements are put forward to promote the normative development of renewable lead industry, promote the structural adjustment of the industry, improve the efficiency of recovery and utilization, and control the impact on the ecological environment in the process of production. Strict standards and requirements are put forward to realize the sustainable and healthy development of the renewable lead industry. Emphasis is placed on the transformation and upgrading of technology and automation, three waste treatment, energy consumption and other aspects of new standards; first, to improve the environmental hygiene conditions of production and to reduce organized, unorganized and even low-standard emissions. Second, we should encourage the adoption of advanced and applicable cleaner production technologies and equipment with high production efficiency and low energy consumption, advocate the use of equipment with a high degree of automation to reduce labor intensity, and eliminate and prohibit the use of backward process equipment explicitly ordered by the state. The third is to improve the scale of recycled lead production, promote the industry to meet the needs of the utilization and treatment of waste lead-acid batteries, and eliminate enterprises with small production scale and unmatched environmental protection facilities.
6.3 reducing the cost of collecting waste lead-acid batteries
In order to realize the profit growth point of the enterprise, it is necessary to reduce the operating cost of collecting waste lead-acid battery, so that the enterprise can maintain a small profit in the recycling and treatment of waste lead-acid battery, so as to improve the enthusiasm of the enterprise and the collection recovery rate of waste lead-acid battery. The main way to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency is to reduce the cost. Refers to the operating costs of recycled lead enterprises, the government comes out of Taiwan to encourage policies, reduce the tax or recovery tax relief of recycled lead enterprises, and reduce the tax cost of enterprises as a whole by reducing taxes and operating costs. The second is to improve efficiency. It refers to improving the treatment efficiency in the production process of enterprises, through the cooperation with professional colleges and universities and scientific research institutions, research and development of more advanced and efficient treatment methods, so as to save the cost of the treatment and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries.
6.4 how to promote the development of collection and recycling of waste lead-acid batteries
In the process of collection and recycling of waste acid batteries, there are still many problems that need to be improved. How to establish a perfect and effective recovery system is the best way to solve the problem. With the continuous development of science and technology, the recovery and utilization technology of waste lead-acid battery also needs to be developed and improved, strengthen the research and development of waste acid battery equipment, as well as recovery and utilization continue to improve the recovery rate of lead, and can reduce the generation and emission of harmful substances. At the same time, increase the research and development of lead-acid battery technology, through scientific and technological innovation, technological progress, to create lighter and longer life performance of lead-acid battery, can reduce the production of waste acid battery. Waste lead-acid battery is a collection and recycling of strong national policies and measures, at the same time, we should increase the intensity of punishment, strengthen the social publicity of environmental protection, so that the public can improve their awareness of recovery and standardization. Standardize the flow of waste lead-acid batteries, put an end to drilling acid behavior, standardize the development of waste lead-acid battery recovery and utilization industry.
6.5 severely crack down on illegal collection, transport and disposal of waste lead-acid batteries
In the past, the collection and recycling of waste lead-acid battery industry is more chaotic, illegal recovery of illegal smelting behavior is more prominent, seriously affecting the source of raw materials procurement of legitimate enterprises, resulting in the majority of legitimate enterprises do not have enough to eat and no raw materials production phenomenon.
Therefore, the state should severely crack down on the illegal collection, transshipment and disposal of waste lead-acid batteries, put an end to the waste of resources, the loss of taxes, and the risk of pollution to the ecological environment. There should be feasible countermeasures: first, it is necessary to formulate more effective policies and focus on effective measures for illegal acts, such as the recovery rate of waste lead-acid batteries as a standard assessment task and ranking for all provinces and cities. The Ministry of Ecological Environment of those who fail to meet the standards shall carry out supervision, inspection and rectification. The second is to double the punishment for illegal collection, transshipment and handling, so as to increase the cost of breaking the law. Third, improve the provinces and cities of the waste lead-acid battery transport link to carry out joint card inspection, once found in-depth investigation of the source chain and capital chain, such as the serious treatment of the establishment of evidence. And other effective measures can effectively put an end to illegal collection, illegal transportation, treatment behavior, so that each waste lead-acid battery can return to its legal platform, and finally achieve harmless treatment. There is still an imbalance in the development of recycled lead industry in China, which may bring the risk of waste of resources and heavy metal pollution. Therefore, it is urgent to standardize the recovery and recycling of waste lead-acid batteries.
Chapter 7 conclusion
Through the description of the above report, the legal recovery rate of waste lead-acid batteries in China is improving year by year, and the implementation of relevant policies and laws and regulations promulgated by the state has played a key role in the normative development of the industry. Through the "extended producer responsibility system implementation plan" and "lead-acid battery production enterprises centralized collection and cross-regional transfer system pilot work program" and the establishment of "sale, receipt and replacement" and the use of "Internet" recovery platform system and other models, it is feasible to meet the advanced global methods and China's national conditions.
The current scale, technical process and equipment of recycled lead enterprises in China, which meet the standard of "Standard conditions of recycled lead Industry", can meet the requirements of the industry and the standard of domestic advanced technology. Compared with the developed countries, the equipment technology level of China's recycled lead industry is in the middle and upper position. At present, there are still some defects in the collection and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries, but if this defect is solved, an earth-shaking change will take place in the development of the whole lead-related industry in our country. Because of the demand and production capacity of lead-acid battery in our country, it has laid the foundation for the sustainable development of waste lead-acid battery collection and regeneration lead industry in our country.
Overall analysis of China's waste lead-acid battery collection and recycling lead industry has been rapid development since the "Eleventh five-year Plan", environmental protection facilities, production equipment technical level has been greatly improved. It is expected that during the 14th five-year Plan period, the collection and recycling of waste lead-acid batteries in China can achieve 100% legal collection and utilization, recycled lead and battery production enterprises will eventually achieve the whole link of complete docking and closed-loop industry development trend.
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In the process of writing this paper, it is in Cao Guoqing teacher put a lot of painstaking efforts, from the topic, from the writing outline, to point out the specific problems in each draft over and over again, strict control, good guidance, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks! At the same time, I would also like to thank Huang Jingbo, who has given me a lot of guidance in the process of editing the paper.
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