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National coastal iron and steel base (including under construction, to be built and planned)
In recent years, the topic of environmental protection relocation of urban steel mills has received extensive attention. We have combed the relevant planning in various coastal areas and found that promoting the relocation of steel enterprises from inland to coastal areas has become one of the main means to solve environmental protection problems in some areas. Some industry insiders joked that after the "cyanobacteria pollution incident" in Taihu Lake in 2007, enterprises that emit nitrogen, phosphorus and other pollution factors were required to move from the Taihu Lake basin to the Yangtze River. After the implementation of the "Yangtze River Protection", enterprises are required to move from the Yangtze River to coastal areas. If stricter marine environmental protection is implemented in the future, where else can enterprises move to?
If the steel enterprise environmental protection moves to the coastal area, if for the purpose of optimizing the layout, there is nothing wrong with it, but if it is a "swarm" to move to the coast, it will be called a question mark. Because from the perspective of environmental protection alone, the relocation of enterprises is not the fundamental way to solve the problem, but to move pollution from one place to another, belonging to the "cure of the symptoms rather than the root of the problem." at the same time, relocation is bound to cause the loss of human, material and financial resources, and the pressure on the production and operation of enterprises will obviously increase after the relocation.
The transformation from resource-based layout to port-facing layout is a profound change that China's iron and steel industry is undergoing. Since the beginning of the new century, China has built five important coastal iron and steel production bases: Bayuquan in Liaoning Province, Caofeidian in Hebei Province, Rizhao in Shandong Province, Zhanjiang in Guangdong Province and Fangcheng Port in Guangxi.
On September 10, 2008, the Yingkou Bayuquan Iron and Steel Project of Angang was put into production. The project is the implementation of China's iron and steel industry development plan, approved the construction of an earlier coastal layout iron and steel base, 6.2 million tons of iron and steel production capacity is highly concentrated here, ironmaking, steelmaking, rolling and other production links in one fell swoop. In addition to the Bayuquan Iron and Steel production Base of Angang, Minmetals Yingkou medium Plate Company, which has a steel production capacity of 6 million tons, has also set up camp in Yingkou Bayuquan District.
According to the plan, in the future Tangshan area will have about 1 to 4 steel production capacity concentrated to Caofeidian. At present, it is conservatively estimated that the steel production capacity in Tangshan area is about 80 million tons. After completing the coastal layout, about 20 million tons of steel production capacity will be concentrated in Caofeidian area. In addition, Shougang Jingtang has completed the first phase of the project and is under construction of the second phase of the project nearly 20 million tons of capacity, Caofeidian steel production capacity will be further expanded.
At present, Shouguang City in the coastal areas of Shandong Province (Jueneng Iron and Steel, Luli Iron and Steel production capacity is about 3.6 million tons), Weifang City (Weifang Special Steel production capacity is about 3 million tons), Yantai City (Huaxin stainless Steel production capacity is about 1 million tons), Qingdao City (Qingdao Special Steel production capacity is 4.17 million tons), Rizhao City (Rizhao Iron and Steel, Shandong Iron and Steel Rizhao Iron and Steel Base is about 26 million tons), Linyi City (Jiangxin Iron and Steel, The steel production capacity of Sande Special Steel is about 5 million tons) the total steel production capacity is about 40 million tons. According to the Shandong provincial government's plan, the proportion of steel production capacity in coastal areas will increase to more than 70% by 2025. In the future, half of Shandong's 80 million tons of steel production capacity, that is, about 40 million tons of steel capacity will be distributed in Rizhao City.
As for Fangchenggang and Zhanjiang iron and steel project, the former is the second undertaking of Guangxi metallurgical industry, realizing "one core, three belts, nine bases", that is, Fangchenggang is the core of Guangxi metallurgical industry development layout, "three belts" is Fangchenggang-Guigang-guest-Liuzhou iron and steel industrial belt, Fangchenggang-Beihai-Yulin-Wuzhou stainless steel industrial belt, Fangchenggang-Chongzuo-Baise manganese industrial belt. The "Nine bases" are the comprehensive metallurgical base of Fangchenggang Economic and technological Development Zone, Liuzhou Iron and Steel Base (including guest ferroalloy), Guigang Iron and Steel Base, Beihai Tieshan Port (Linhai) Industrial Park stainless Steel Base, Yulin Longtan Industrial Park stainless Steel products Base, Wuzhou stainless Steel supply Base, Baise Manganese Industrial Base, Chongzuo Manganese Industrial Base, Hezhou Mine equipment Foundry Base. Coastal port capacity accounts for more than 60% of the distribution of an important step; The latter is Baowu predecessor Baosteel Group restructuring Guangdong local Shaogang and other established design capacity of more than 10 million tons of iron and steel production base. Four new 3200 cubic meters of ironmaking blast furnaces and seven 200t steelmaking converters will be built in the Fangchenggang Iron and Steel Project of Liugang, with a scale of 10.68 million tons of pig iron and 14.7 million tons of crude steel. After the industrial upgrading and technical transformation project of Guangxi Shenglong Metallurgical Co., Ltd. (at a cost of 10 billion yuan, scheduled to be completed by the end of 2019, the original inefficient capacity of 2.98 million tons of pig iron and 3.4 million tons of crude steel can be replaced after commissioning). Fangchenggang's steel production capacity will be about 20 million tons, which will become a veritable "steel capital" in Guangxi.
The existing, under-construction and proposed iron and steel production capacity of these five coastal iron and steel production bases alone has reached about 100 million tons, and the layout of China's iron and steel industry is being completely broken, which has played an important role in optimizing the layout of China's iron and steel industry.
Combing the planning of iron and steel production capacity in coastal areas in recent years, it is found that due to the heavy pressure of the environment, the pace of relocation and layout adjustment of steel enterprises to the coast has been obviously accelerated. In addition to the five major coastal iron and steel production bases, there are also a large number of steel projects aimed at Leting, Yancheng, Nantong, Lianyungang, Fuzhou and other coastal areas, or have been launched, or are moving forward. (Liu Fan)
Not only Jinshan Yinshan, but also blue sea and blue sky
In the author's opinion, the five major coastal iron and steel production bases approved for construction since the new century can be divided into two categories: Caofeidian and Rizhao iron and steel production bases are passive "migration" of production capacity under the pressure of environmental protection. Bayuquan iron and steel base built in the new century is the active layout of Angang's coastal development, Fangchenggang and Zhanjiang production base is also aimed at the active layout of ASEAN economic circle.
In recent years, due to the pressure of environmental protection, various localities have accelerated the relocation of urban steel enterprises, and some coastal provinces have accelerated the pace of relocation and adjustment of steel to the coastal areas. Marine environmental protection will become a common problem faced by port-facing steel enterprises. Specifically, the impact of port-facing steel enterprises on the marine environment is mainly concentrated in the following aspects:
First, the iron and steel industry belongs to the "big in and out" industry, the layout of the sea is to rely on the characteristics of low cost of water transportation. However, the frequent entry and exit of large ships may cause varying degrees of pollution to the water quality of local sea areas due to oil leakage and other reasons.
Second, at present, although the wastewater produced by domestic steel enterprises in steelmaking and ironmaking has been treated by corresponding environmental protection, the treated reclaimed water has not been completely recovered by steel mills, and some of it will still flow into the sea. In addition, some steel enterprises have waste slag and waste water is secretly discharged into the sea, which undoubtedly increases the environmental burden of the ocean.
In the author's opinion, reading the environmental protection "hoop mantra" of steel enterprises to "catch up with the sea" can start from the following aspects:
The first is to carry out strict environmental assessment of iron and steel coastal projects, realize the "one vote veto" system of environmental protection, and improve the level of environmental protection equipment of coastal iron and steel projects from the source.
Second, the use of a variety of intelligent equipment, the impact of coastal steel enterprises on the marine environment for round-the-clock monitoring, for any behavior beyond the environmental protection red line to implement "zero tolerance."
Third, steel enterprises should vigorously develop circular economy, maximize the recovery and utilization of waste slag and wastewater, and minimize the impact of iron and steel projects on the marine environment.
Fourth, in the design of production process, steel enterprises should adhere to the principle of circular economy, reasonably choose production technology, promote clean production, and strive to minimize waste production, maximize and harmless the utilization of resources in every link of production. to build a circular economy model suitable for its own development.
Fifth, improve the construction of environmental protection supporting industries. In the iron and steel production capacity gathering area, the introduction of professional environmental protection treatment enterprises, extend the industrial chain, and realize the recycling of resources in the whole iron and steel industry base.
In the search for symbiotic development with the marine economy, Baosteel Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. relying on BOO (construction and management) project operation mode out of a new way of environmental protection management is very worth using for reference.
Both Jinshan Yinshan, but also blue sea and blue sky, this is the steel enterprise "catch up with the sea" the correct posture. (Zhou Yu)
Steel enterprises "catch up with the sea" should do "a game of chess" in the whole country
The relocation of iron and steel enterprises to coastal areas involves not only one enterprise, but also industry, economy, environment, society and so on. Therefore, we should make a comprehensive and multi-angle analysis and put the specific enterprise relocation under the background of the above aspects in order to get an objective and accurate judgment.
The decision of iron and steel enterprises to move to coastal areas needs to weigh the advantages and disadvantages and comprehensively consider various factors: is it in line with the requirements of national and local policy guidance? Is it beneficial to get close to the market and serve users? Is it conducive to environmental protection and green development? Is it conducive to optimizing layout and technological progress? Is it conducive to product upgrading and extension of the chain? Is it conducive to reducing costs and improving efficiency? Is it conducive to restructuring the organization and strengthening management? Is it a good time to invest?
In view of the favorable conditions of location and logistics, the coastal iron and steel base has a certain relative advantage. From the current enterprises under construction, the proposed construction of iron and steel projects, the future period of time, the coastal iron and steel production capacity will still increase. For coastal iron and steel projects, they should be divided into two parts: on the one hand, coastal iron and steel projects that meet the requirements of industrial policy, are conducive to reducing emissions and improving the environment, and enterprises do have the willingness and strength to invest, should be encouraged; On the other hand, the relocation of iron and steel enterprises to coastal areas should be cautiously promoted, and it is not appropriate to lay out steel bases in coastal areas on a large scale. It is necessary to give full play to the decisive role of the market and demonstrate in detail the necessity and feasibility of the project in accordance with the law of industrial development. Avoid rush-up and impractical practices.
The relocation of iron and steel enterprises to coastal areas is an important part of the layout of the iron and steel industry. The relevant departments should improve their position, take a long-term view, and consider the whole country as a whole. According to the requirements of laws, regulations and policies, the layout of iron and steel industry should be planned from the national level by comprehensively considering the conditions of industrial development (market, resources, environmental carrying capacity, etc.), as well as the integration of production and cities.
For the coastal iron and steel base which meets the policy requirements and demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of relocation and construction, we should focus on the industrial chain and ecological circle and create a new construction and development model. For example, we should build an industrial chain around the value chain, further develop the steel deep processing industry, and even the downstream steel industry, and apply a new generation of industrial Internet to build an iron and steel ecosphere with users, supply chain enterprises, financial institutions, peer competitors, and so on, so as to improve the overall competitiveness and sustainable development ability of each enterprise in the circle.
The writer is vice president of the China Iron and Steel Industry Association and president of the Metallurgical Industry Planning and Research Institute.
Source: China Metallurgical Journal