I. Overview and development history of enamelled wire in past life and present life
2. The advantages and disadvantages of the unique mode of the industry influenced by the advantages and disadvantages of the six major characteristics of the industry together affect the trend of the industry.
III. The joint action of upstream and downstream industries determines the supply and demand pattern of enamelled wire
IV. Development status and trend Prospect of enamelled Wire Industry in China
Introduction to SMM: the enamelled wire industry is currently changing the traditional problems such as low industry concentration and low-end products. In the future, it will gradually increase R & D investment in the direction of high-end enamelled wire and special enamelled wire, and integrate and match the transformation and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry at the end of raw materials. With the adjustment of China's industrial structure, it will bring a new round of growth driving force to the enamelled wire industry. At the same time, product quality and industry concentration will also be further improved.
Overview and Development History of enamelled Wire in past Life and present Life
Enamelled wire is a main kind of winding wire, which is made of metal conductor as conductive inner core and coated with polymer insulation, which is mainly composed of these two parts; it is a functional material that converts electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy, heat energy, sound energy, light energy or mechanical, thermal, chemical, acoustic, light and other energy into electromagnetic energy. It is the main material for winding electromagnetic coils in industrial motors (including motors and generators), transformers, electrical instruments, power and electronic components, power tools, household appliances, automotive appliances and so on. The conductor part of the enamelled wire is generally annealed undoped pure metals, such as copper, aluminum, some occasions also use copper alloy, silver, nickel, stainless steel and other materials, according to the working voltage and working temperature, the enamelled wire often uses polymers such as AN ester, polyester imide, polyimide and so on as insulating film materials to wrap the metal wire of electromagnetic coil. There are many ways to classify enamelled wires, the main classification methods are as follows:
The upper reaches of the enamelled wire is the copper rod industry, and the downstream is a variety of consumer terminals, mainly motors and transformers. Enamelled wire is a kind of winding wire (electromagnetic wire). Winding wire is a kind of conductive metal wire with insulating layer, which is used to winding coils or windings of electrical products. Its function is to generate the magnetic field through the current, or cut the magnetic line to produce the induced current, to realize the conversion between the electric energy and the magnetic energy, so it is also called the electromagnetic wire. The conductive cores of winding wires are round wire, flat wire, tape, foil and so on. At present, most of them use copper wire, and some of them use aluminum wire. In order to improve the tensile strength of aluminum winding wire, high conductive and high strength aluminum alloy can be used. According to the characteristics and uses of insulation layer, winding wire can be divided into three categories: enamelled wire, wrapped insulated wire and special insulated winding wire. Winding wire includes: paper wrapped wire, glass filament wrapped wire, thin film wrapped wire, special wrapped wire for submersible motor, wind turbine winding wire, silk wrapped single wire, silk wrapped bundle wire, transposition wire; special winding wire: refers to the winding wire which is suitable for special occasions or has special performance requirements.
The production process of enamelled wire mainly includes: laying out, annealing, painting, baking, cooling, winding. In order to reduce the energy and physical loss of operators, large-capacity wire release is usually used. The key of wire release is to control the tension, to be uniform and appropriate, in order to reduce the energy and physical loss of the operators, that is, to release the wire on a normal operation of the enamelled machine, in order to reduce the energy and physical loss of the operators. At the same time, different specifications of wire relays are also different, large specifications and large capacity spools generally use radial rotary take-up; medium size wires generally use over-end or brush type take-up; fine specifications of wire generally use brush or double cone sleeve type take-up device. The middle size wire generally uses the over-end type or the brush type take-up device; the fine specification wire generally uses the brush type or the double cone sleeve type take-up device. The purpose of annealing is to disrupt the molecular lattice structure, restore the softness required by the process after heating at a certain temperature, and remove the lubricant and oil stains in the drawing process to ensure the quality of the enamelled wire. After annealing, painting is the process of coating the enamelled wire on the metal conductor to form a uniform coating of a certain thickness. Different painting methods, different wire specifications have different requirements for the viscosity of the paint. In general, the enamelled wire has to go through the process of coating and baking many times in order to make the solvent evaporate fully, the lacquer resin reacts completely and forms a good paint film. Baking, like painting, is a cyclic process, first evaporating the solvent in the paint, then curing, forming a paint film, and then painting and baking. Pollutants will be produced in the baking process, to immediately remove the furnace, generally use catalytic combustion hot air circulation furnace, at the same time, the amount of waste should not be too large or too small, because the waste discharge process has to take away a lot of heat, so waste discharge should not only ensure safe production and product quality, but also can not lead to the loss of a lot of heat. From the oven out of the enamelled wire, the temperature is very high, the paint film is very soft, the strength is very small, if not timely cooling, through the guide wheel paint film damage, affecting the quality of the enamelled wire. The next step of cooling is to take up the wire, the purpose of which is to wrap the enamelled wire around the spool continuously, tightly and evenly. It is required that the wire take-up mechanism should be stable in transmission, low in noise, proper in tension and regular in arrangement.
The actual production diagram of the enamelled wire is as follows:
The enamelled wire industry has a long history of development, which can be traced back to 1831, when Faraday did electromagnetic induction experiments. At that time, man first used enamelled wire to make electromagnetic induction coils. Then Siemens and Edison invented motor, lamp and transformer one after another. The invention of motor and transformer solved the problem of power transportation, and the application of enamelled wire began.
The transformation period of the enamelled wire began with the second Industrial Revolution, during which the catalytic combustion technology and mold painting technology were invented. After World War II, with the rise of the American economy, the development of the enamelled wire industry was greatly promoted. As a result, the variety of the enamelled wire, the scale of production and operation, and the manufacturing technology were all improved. During this period, the first generation of enamelled wire leader enterprises were born. Such as Essex, Philip Dodge, France Alcatel, leading the development of the world enamelled wire industry.
In the 1960s, the rise of Japanese industrial economy led to a new round of development of the enamelled wire industry, resulting in a new round of upgrading of the technology of the enamelled wire industry, mainly due to the rise of the home appliance industry led to the development of special enamelled wire, such as self-adhesive enamelled wire, heat-resistant enamelled wire and so on. During this period, it has formed the second generation of enamelled wire leaders, mainly the first electrician in Japan, Sumitomo in Japan, Hitachi Power Line, South Korea LG Company and so on, leading the development of high-end enamelled wire in the world.
After the 21st century, the world economic pattern has changed, and China's economy has risen. Especially after China's accession to the WTO, China's economy has grown rapidly and has become a world manufacturing base, resulting in a large increase in the demand for enamelled wire. China's demand for enamelled wire is huge. At present, it has become the largest country in the production and consumption of enamelled wire. At the same time, well-known foreign enterprises have set up manufacturing bases in China, bringing advanced production technology. It provides a good international environment for the development of enamelled wire in China.
The application field of enamelled wire is very extensive, mainly in motor and transformer industry, and the application fields of different kinds of enamelled wire are also different. in addition to motor and transformer industry, household appliances are also an important application field of enamelled wire, mainly special enamelled wire. In recent years, the demand for enamelled wire is also very large, especially for new energy vehicles, which is an important application terminal of enamelled wire.
The advantages and disadvantages of the six characteristics of the unique Mode of the Industry together affect the trend of the Industry
The enamelled wire industry is a traditional industry, which has its inherent industry particularity. In terms of the pattern of industry competition, at present, the number of enterprises in the industry exceeds 1000, the market competition is fierce, the degree of concentration is on the low side, and there are more low-end small enterprises. In the future, the integration of the industry will be accelerated, and the small and medium-sized enterprises with backward level of technology and equipment, weak capital strength and low level of operation and management will be gradually eliminated by the market. Large producers with advantages of scale, technology and management will have more room for development in the market. In the business model, the production mode of "fixing production by sale" is generally adopted. In terms of pricing, copper processing enterprises generally adopt the mode of "copper price + processing fee" to determine the product price, and the price of electrolytic copper fluctuates with the market. Processing fee is the price negotiated by copper processing enterprises and customers according to product specifications, complex process conditions and other factors, which is relatively stable. In terms of profit, the improvement of the profit level of the enamelled wire industry mainly depends on the expansion of scale. Due to the fierce market competition, the supply exceeds the demand, the processing fee is low, and the overall profitability is on the low side. High-end enamelled wire and other product fields, such as corona-resistant, cold-resistant, high-temperature and other special enamelled wire, the market concentration is high, the processing fee is high, and the profit is relatively rich. Enterprises with advanced production technology, scale effect and abundant funds can occupy a favorable position in the market competition and obtain good economic benefits, at the same time, expanding market share and adjusting product structure are important means to ensure profit level and sustainability. Although the concentration of the enamelled wire industry is low, the number of small and medium-sized enterprises is on the high side, but the distribution area is relatively concentrated, mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, the Bohai Rim region, most of the production enterprises are distributed here, the enterprise aggregation effect is significant, the copper processing downstream enterprises are also mainly distributed here, the distribution of the main body of supply and demand is consistent, at the same time, due to geographical location factors, these areas are also convenient for product export. At the same time, the enamelled wire is mainly lacquered copper wire. Because the financial attribute of copper in non-ferrous metals is very strong, it is greatly influenced by macro-economy. The development of copper products is closely related to the development of national economy. The development cycle of the industry is basically consistent with the development cycle of the macro-economy. In the future, the development direction of enamelled wire will be fine, composite coating and processing resistance, because with the industrial upgrading of downstream motor, transformer, household appliances and other industries, the high end of products will lead to the complexity of the demand of enamelled wire, which will drive the development of high-end enamelled wire.
There are many kinds of products in the enamelled wire industry, and the application fields involve a variety of motor, transformer, household appliances and other industries. The market entry threshold of the low-end products of the enamelled wire is relatively low, and the entry threshold of the high-end market is relatively high. Industry barriers are divided into the following aspects:
First of all, in terms of scale and brand, there are not many large-scale enamelled wire enterprises in the market at present. Due to the continuous upgrading and adjustment of the industry, the downstream products are becoming more and more abundant, and the requirements for the enamelled wire industry are getting higher and higher. Therefore, we prefer large-scale enterprises, which can not only meet the supply of goods on time, but also have a relatively perfect after-sales service process. In terms of brand, the more well-known brands in the industry are more favored by downstream, so manufacturers who meet these conditions will be favored by customers. Manufacturers with high brand awareness, sound sales network and perfect customer service system will be the first choice for customers. Or in the industry characteristics of the variety, the formation of unique product advantages, differential competition, these manufacturers will be the first choice of customers. New entry enterprises in a short period of time to form a brand effect and perfect production and marketing system, it is not easy to achieve, it is difficult to occupy the market in a short period of time.
In terms of technology, many downstream applications of enamelled wire have strict quality requirements, especially for special purposes, such as coils supplying power transmission and transformation equipment for the national power grid, which is related to the safety of national power operation. If there is a problem, it will cause great losses to the country, so there are strict requirements on the product quality and technology of enamelled wire manufacturers. Therefore, on the technical level, the quality requirements of high-end enamelled wire bring higher technical barriers to the entrants of the industry, and at the same time, as far as the production process of enamelled wire is concerned, the accumulation of technical experience is also relatively high. the whole production process includes more than 20 process parameters such as wire drawing, coating speed, tension control, mold configuration, baking temperature, and more than 100 control points, which should be reasonably designed and strictly controlled. And coordinated use, need to have a certain degree of experience accumulated personnel, the current market is also lack of experienced technical staff. The technical barriers of new enterprises are difficult to solve, and it is difficult to coordinate a variety of factors, including plant construction, raw material selection, process control and so on. Moreover, our country adopts the production license management to the production of the enamelled wire, the manufacturer must obtain the relevant qualification certificate to have the production qualification, and because the national strategy attaches importance to the industrial upgrading of the manufacturing industry, with the downstream technological progress and product upgrading, the upstream raw materials put forward more requirements, generally need to have the United States UL safety standard test and the European Union ROHS environmental protection certification and other standard certification in order to obtain customer recognition.
In terms of capital, the enamelled wire industry is a capital-intensive industry, which has higher requirements for the scale of capital and financing capacity. The main raw materials for the production of enamelled wire are copper and aluminum. In particular, the price of copper is high, the unit value is high, need to take up a lot of funds, and the enamelled wire enterprises mainly purchase electrolytic copper and copper rod, the price of copper rod is also affected by copper price, the higher copper price has formed the greater capital pressure to the copper rod factory and the enamelled wire enterprise, the purchase and turnover of raw materials need a lot of funds to ensure the normal operation of the company. Therefore, due to the greater financial pressure, it is difficult for new enterprises to produce on a large scale, and the scale of fixed assets investment and liquidity are very high.
In terms of partnership stickiness, because many varieties of enamelled wire are custom non-standard parts, especially enamelled flat wire, there will be a sticky problem between the enamelled wire and downstream customers, and a stable long-term partnership will be formed between the running-in suppliers and customers, including trust in the quality of the enamelled wire and the stability of the supply. Once the relationship between downstream and stable suppliers is established, it is more sticky and difficult to replace. Therefore, new enterprises want to enter the industry partnership barriers also need to be considered.
The influencing factors of the future development of the industry are mainly divided into two parts: favorable factors and unfavorable factors.
First of all, the favorable factors include the support of the national industrial policy, because the downstream of the enamelled wire is mainly the traditional electric power industry, and the state's support to the electric power industry will be beneficial to the demand of the enamelled wire. For example, China's 13th five-year Plan proposes to put the strategic emerging industries in a more prominent position in social development. Pay more attention to energy conservation and environmental protection, new generation of information technology, high-end equipment manufacturing, new energy and the development of new materials. With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, smart home appliances and smart grid have become the focus of future development. at the same time, the national subsidy policy for new energy vehicles has a good demand for the terminal of the enamelled wire, and the adjustment of the industrial structure has formed higher requirements for the special enamelled wire and the high-end enamelled wire, which not only pull the overall demand scale of the enamelled wire from the quantity, but also form the higher requirement to the technology of the enamelled wire from the quality. At the same time, the industrial upgrading of the downstream industry also puts forward a broad space for the copper processing industry, especially "energy saving, environmental protection, cleaning" is the national key development strategy, downstream household appliances, new energy vehicles, electronic components and other areas of product demand is very large, directly driving the demand for enamelled wire. At the international level, the introduction of foreign advanced enamelled wire technology and equipment provides a good opportunity for the technological upgrading of China's enamelled wire enterprises, and is beneficial for domestic copper processing enterprises to keep pace with the international advanced fields. During the 13th five-year Plan period, China's power industry pays more attention to the cleanliness, intelligence and structural optimization of the development of the power industry. The stable development and stable growth of the power industry is the driving force for the long-term growth of the enamelled wire industry. Because the downstream of the enamelled wire is mainly used in motors and transformers, motors and transformers are the basic products of the power industry.
First of all, the disadvantageous factor is that the risk of aluminum replacing copper is increased. Compared with copper, aluminum has the characteristics of light weight and low price, and will form a certain substitution for copper-coated wire in some special fields. However, the conductivity, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance of aluminum-coated wire are not as good as copper, which directly affects the quality and service life of downstream products. Therefore, copper enamelled wire still occupies the mainstream enamelled wire market, but with the improvement of aluminum enamelled wire technology, in some areas where the product performance requirements are not high, the substitution advantage of aluminum enamelled wire will be obvious. in these areas, the substitution of copper is also one of the unfavorable factors. Secondly, the degree of industry concentration is not high, at present, the industry is still relatively scattered, and the products are mainly ordinary products, so the degree of market concentration needs to be improved, the homogenization and low-end of products are relatively obvious, and the investment in research and development of high-end products needs to be further improved. with the improvement of the quality demand of the downstream industry, the market share of ordinary enamelled wire will continue to shrink, and the varieties and enterprises that are difficult to meet the market demand will face the situation of elimination. The upgrading of terminal products will force the improvement of enamelled wire technology. As a result, enterprises with large scale and good quality will occupy a dominant position in the competition, and the degree of industry concentration will be further enhanced.
The interaction of upstream and downstream industries determines the supply and demand pattern of enamelled wire
The growth of domestic demand for enamelled wire is mainly divided into the following driving factors: the upgrading of traditional mechanical and electrical industry, the upgrading of household appliances, the demand of traditional and new intelligent household appliances, the promotion of high-tech industries such as electronic information, the popularity of the electric vehicle industry, and so on. These driving factors drive the demand of the enamelled wire market and promote the rapid development of the enamelled wire industry, judging from the scale of domestic demand. In the early 1980s, the market scale of China's enamelled wire was only about 50, 000 tons, and by 2005 the market scale had expanded to about 700000 tons, and the market scale in 2015 had reached about 1.5 million tons, with a positive growth trend. Due to the influence of Sino-US friction in the second half of 2018, it has a certain impact on the global economic and trade environment. It is estimated that the annual demand growth rate of enamelled wire in 2019 will be about 6%. On the supply side, according to the wire and cable branch of China Electrical Appliance Industry Association, the demand for enamelled wire in China is about 1.1 million tons in 2010 and nearly 1.5 million tons in 2015. China has become the largest country in the production and consumption of enamelled wire in the world. On the domestic supply side, the market scale of enamelled wire in China has expanded year by year, from 1.002 million tons in 2006 to 1.866 million tons in 2016, with an average growth rate of about 6 per cent. According to the import and export volume of enamelled wire in China, the proportion of exports has increased year by year, and the proportion of imports has decreased year by year. With the impact of Sino-US trade frictions in the second half of 2018, the global economic downturn is expected to increase, and the output growth rate is expected to decline slightly in 2019, but there is still a lot of room for growth downstream as a whole, and the output growth rate of enamelled wire is expected to remain at about 4.5%. At the same time, at the level of supply structure, it is expected that with the continuous improvement of China's industrial structure and the continuous improvement of industrial concentration, the demand for high-end enamelled wire will increase, and then affect the supply side. In the future, in the high-end enamelled wire, the special enamelled wire will continue to expand its market share and realize the transformation from a large country of enamelled wire production to a powerful country of production.
Downstream demand areas:
The demand for enamelled wires in recent years is as follows:
The output of enamelled wire in recent years is as follows:
Development status and trend Prospect of enamelled Wire Industry in China
First of all, China has become the largest country in the production and consumption of enamelled wire, with the transfer of the world manufacturing center, the global enamelled wire market has also begun to transfer to China, China has become an important processing base in the world, especially after China's accession to the WTO, China's enamelled wire industry has also achieved rapid development, the output of enamelled wire has exceeded that of the United States and Japan, and has become the largest production and consumption country in the world. With the increasing degree of economic openness, the export of the downstream industry of enamelled wire is also increasing year by year, leading the enamelled wire industry to enter the international market. Secondly, the benefit of regional agglomeration is remarkable. At present, the distribution of enamelled wire manufacturing area is mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Bohai Bay. The main prominent provinces are Zhejiang Province and Guangdong Province, with more leading enterprises, including Jingda, Datong, Jintian, Hong Bo and so on.
The future development of the enamelled wire industry is mainly reflected in three aspects. First, the concentration of the enamelled wire industry has further increased. As China's economy enters the new normal, the growth rate slows down, all industries are faced with the problem of overcapacity, and the backward production capacity is eliminated. Closing polluting enterprises is a policy vigorously promoted by the state. At present, the gathering places of enamelled wire manufacturers in China are in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Bohai Bay region. There are about 1000 enterprises in the industry, but there are many small and medium-sized enterprises and the concentration of the industry is low. With the acceleration of the upgrading process of the industrial structure in the downstream field of the enamelled wire, it will promote the integration of the enamelled wire industry, with a good reputation, a certain scale, high-tech enterprises can stand out in the competition, and the degree of industry concentration will be further improved. Secondly, the acceleration of industrial structure adjustment, technological upgrading and demand diversification are the trigger factors to accelerate the industrial structure adjustment of enamelled wire, so that ordinary enamelled wire can maintain a stable growth state, and vigorously promote the rapid development of special enamelled wire. Finally, energy saving and environmental protection has become the direction of technological development, the state pays more and more attention to environmental protection and energy saving, green innovation, the production process of enamelled wire will produce a lot of pollution, many enterprises equipment technology is not up to standard, facing increasing pressure on environmental protection. If we do not carry out the research and development of environmental protection technology, and the introduction of environmental protection equipment, it is very difficult for enterprises to survive and develop for a long time.