On December 25, 2016, the implementation plan of the extended producer responsibility system was promulgated, and the State Council brought the lead-acid battery industry into the implementation plan of the extended producer responsibility system. At the 2019 (14th) Shanghai lead and Zinc Summit hosted by Shanghai Nonferrous Network, Shen Wenxiang, assistant president and director of strategic purchasing department of Chaowei Group, has made progress in the development of lead battery production industry, the recovery and utilization of waste lead battery, and the implementation of extended producer responsibility system. The measures, "bottleneck" analysis and prospect of Chaowei Group to implement the extended producer responsibility system have brought us the implementation progress and "bottleneck" analysis of the extended producer responsibility system of 2019 lead-acid battery enterprises.
Development status of lead Battery production Industry
In 2017, the top 100 enterprises in China's battery industry achieved sales revenue of more than 375.149 billion yuan, up 29.7 percent from 289.248 billion yuan in 2016.
In 2017, there were 21 lead-acid battery enterprises in the top 100 battery industry, and the sales income of lead-acid battery was 97.867 billion yuan, accounting for 26.1%. There are 40 lithium-ion battery enterprises, lithium-ion battery sales revenue of 129.3 billion yuan, accounting for 34.5%.
In 2018, the cumulative profit of the national battery industry totaled 28.975 billion yuan, an increase of-17.65 percent over the same period last year, of which the cumulative profit from the manufacture of lead-acid batteries was 3.861 billion yuan (13.32 percent), an increase of 0.32 percent over the same period last year. The cumulative profit from the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries was 17.833 billion yuan (61.55 per cent), an increase of-24.56 per cent over the same period last year.
In terms of production capacity, according to statistics, the cumulative output of the national lead-acid battery industry increased by 1.1% in 2017 compared with the same period last year, and the cumulative output of lithium-ion batteries increased by 31.3% in 2017 compared with the same period last year, when the cumulative output of lithium-ion batteries was 40.44 million KVAh,.
Although the production capacity of lead-acid batteries is much higher than that of lithium-ion batteries, the profit of lead-acid batteries is less than 1 / 4 of that of lithium-ion batteries. The main reasons are that the cost and sales price of lead-acid batteries are low, the consumer market is mature and stable, the consumption tax is heavy, and the industry is lack of national policy support.
Tax burden analysis:
Profit margins in the lead battery industry have hovered between 2% and 4% for years. In September 2017, according to the statistics of 52 large and medium-sized lead battery enterprises by the China Battery Industry Association, the main business revenue in 2016 was 100.654 billion yuan, the total profit was 3.942 billion yuan, and the profit margin was 3.92%. The net profit was 2.225 billion yuan and the profit margin was only 2.21 per cent. Of these 52 large and medium-sized enterprises, the total amount of tax paid (a total of 24 categories of taxes) is 7.45 billion yuan, and the tax burden rate is as high as 7.4 percent, which is higher than the tax burden rate of industrial enterprises in the whole country.
After the implementation of the consumption tax, the economic benefits of lead battery enterprises have declined, funds are scarce, the production cost of lead battery has increased, the ability and level of environmental protection and technical transformation of enterprises have been restricted, and lead battery and its supporting industries have also suffered a fatal blow. This continued downturn in the development of the industry has continued to this day. Lead-acid battery and its related enterprises in China have been strongly opposed to the levying of consumption tax on lead-acid battery.
1. The environmental pollution caused by the illegal recovery and smelting of waste lead battery is serious.
In recent years, the relevant departments have stepped up efforts to rectify the lead battery and recycled lead industries, eliminated a large number of backward process and equipment, failed to meet the target of "small, scattered, chaotic" production enterprises, and greatly increased the degree of industrial concentration.
At present, the pollution of lead battery industry mainly exists in the link of recovery and utilization (including collection, storage, transfer, transportation and recycling of waste lead battery).
On the one hand, the recovery market of waste lead battery has been controlled by "mobile vendors" for a long time, and the pollution is serious. On the other hand, the illegally recovered waste lead batteries flow to illegal small smelting, resulting in a shortage of raw materials in formal recycled lead enterprises, resulting in a vicious circle.
2. Recovery status of waste lead battery
The annual production of waste lead-acid batteries exceeds 5 million tons, with more than 80 per cent flowing into illegal channels.
The national standard for the transfer, utilization and disposal of waste lead-acid batteries is less than 20% of the production of waste lead-acid batteries.
Illegal recovery has been banned repeatedly, and the environment has been seriously polluted.
About 20 to 300000 individuals across the country collect troops to purchase waste lead batteries through simple means of transport. Individual collectors illegally pour about 300000 tons of acid each year.
Cumbersome procedures for examination and approval of transfer of waste lead batteries
Waste lead batteries are hazardous waste, and the collection amount of waste lead batteries in each province does not match the local recycled lead production capacity. Most of the waste lead batteries need to be transferred across provinces, and the existing system transfer examination and approval procedures are cumbersome and the cycle is long. The efficiency of collection and transfer of lead-acid battery specification is limited.
Difficulty in applying for Recycling qualification of waste lead Battery
Waste lead-acid batteries are hazardous waste. Units engaged in collecting and storing waste lead-acid batteries need to apply for a hazardous waste management license. The number of permits issued for hazardous waste management of waste lead-acid batteries in some provinces and cities is insufficient, and it is difficult for enterprises to apply for recovery qualifications. Most of the waste lead batteries flow into illegal recovery channels.
3. Present situation of regeneration and utilization of waste lead battery
1. Excess capacity of recycled lead and uneven regional distribution
In 2018, China approved the construction of recycled lead enterprises with a capacity of more than 10.5028 million tons of waste lead batteries, mainly concentrated in Anhui, Henan, Jiangsu and other places. The production capacity of recycled lead enterprises far exceeded the production capacity of waste lead-acid batteries.
2. A large number of illegal renewable smelting enterprises cause environmental pollution and waste of resources.
The illegal renewable smelting enterprises have the advantages of small scale, high energy consumption and heavy pollution, and the lead steam, lead dust and sulfur dioxide are discharged directly into the environment, and the waste water and waste residue are discharged at will. These illegal enterprises have no tax burden and environmental protection costs, and rush to buy waste lead batteries at a price higher than that of legitimate enterprises, thus disturbing the market order.
Statistics on disposal capacity of recycled lead Enterprises
The operating rate of recycled lead plant is less than 50%.
According to data released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the output of recycled lead in China was 2.25 million tons in 2018. It is roughly estimated that the overall operating rate of recycled lead plants in China is 40% to 50%.
According to the SMM survey data, the total production capacity of the sample recycled lead plant is 3.41 million tons / year, and the total output of 2018 recycled lead is 1.544 million tons, with an operating rate of 40% to 50%.
Progress in the implementation of extended producer responsibility system
On 25 December 2016, a programme for the implementation of the extended producer responsibility system was introduced.
On December 29, 2018, the State Council mentioned waste lead batteries four times in the pilot program of "No waste cities".
On 18 January 2019, nine ministries jointly issued the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of pollution from waste lead batteries, defining the collection rate target and the division of responsibilities among ministries.
On January 24, 2019, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment and the Ministry of Transport jointly issued a pilot work plan, with 20 provinces and cities in the country included in the scope of the pilot project.
Measures to implement the extended producer responsibility system in Chaowei Group
Construction of safe and orderly recovery Network of waste lead Battery
1. Carry out the policy research on battery recovery.
In 2015, the China Environmental Protection Foundation donated and set up a special fund for the prevention and rescue of battery pollution. Participate in "Strategic study on Environmental Management of solid waste in lead Battery Industry and recycled lead Industry", "Strategic study on Environmental Management of solid waste in lead Battery Industry", Research on more than a dozen management systems and management systems, such as "Research on the whole Life cycle Prevention and Control system of lead in lead Battery and recycled lead Industry", The purpose of this paper is to lay a sufficient theoretical foundation for the standardized collection and transfer management of waste lead-acid batteries.
2. Research on the related standards of battery recovery
In 2017, the editor edited the local standard of Shandong Province, "Technical Specification for Prevention and Control of lead-acid Battery Life cycle pollution", which provides an important reference for the introduction of a pilot program for battery recovery in Shandong Province.
In 2018, combined with the relevant document requirements of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the pilot experience of the solid management center, the editor recommended the national standard "Technical Specification for recovery of waste lead-acid batteries". The operation technology and management requirements of collection, storage, transportation and transfer of waste lead-acid batteries in the field of social source circulation are stipulated, which provides a basis for the national demonstration and popularization of the recovery mode of lead-acid batteries.
3. Give full play to the advantages of sales network and establish the recovery system of waste lead battery.
Relying on the 3000 sales agents, 630000 grass-roots sales outlets and logistics distribution systems covered by Chaowei batteries throughout the country, the headquarters of the recovery plate has been set up in Beijing through the model of "exchanging the old for the new and reverse logistics." To promote the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries throughout the country.
4. Standardized collection and storage management in accordance with the requirements of environmental protection
The Engineering and Technology Center has carried out rectification and reform of temporary storage points and transit warehouses in strict accordance with the requirements of environmental protection, and has formulated a series of standards and management systems. It includes "basic requirements for the construction of waste lead battery recovery network", "temporary storage point warehouse reconstruction scheme", "transfer station warehouse construction scheme", "transfer station warehouse location scheme", "waste battery code standard in warehouse", "Treasury management system", "pollution protection measures and emergency plans", "Business personnel training Manual", "account records and transfer monthly statement reference style" and so on.
Construction of Internet of things Supervision platform to realize Life cycle Supervision of lead Battery
1. To formulate the group standard of "rules for coding identity information of two-dimensional code of lead-acid battery"
In order to carry out the extended producer responsibility system, establish the traceability system of lead battery and implement the whole life cycle management of products, the Engineering Technology Center, together with the well-known enterprises of lead battery, formulated the "Code identity Information coding rules of lead Battery two-dimensional Code". On April 18, 2018, the standard was officially issued by the China Battery Industry Association.
The implementation of the "lead Battery two-dimensional Code identity Information coding rules" will effectively unify the identity information identification rules of enterprises and lead battery products, speed up the establishment of big data information platform in the industry, and standardize the production, use, recovery and utilization of products. To provide technical support for the operation of the Internet of things supervision platform.
2. Construction of battery life cycle Internet of things supervision platform
In order to strengthen the supervision of the recycling process of waste lead batteries by environmental protection departments, the Engineering and Technology Center has accelerated the construction of a monitoring platform for the battery life cycle Internet of things that can be connected to production enterprises, recycling enterprises, dealers, logistics providers, renewable enterprises and financial institutions. The visual management of the whole process of waste lead battery circulation is realized through the platform, and the supervision data chain of lead battery is formed, which is "the source can be found, the direction can be traced, the supervision leaves the mark, the responsibility can be investigated".
3. Warehouse video surveillance system
In order to control the situation in the warehouse in real time, prevent the battery from being lost or damaged, and reduce the risk of safety and environmental protection, the temporary storage point and the transfer station warehouse all install the real-time video surveillance system, and install the electronic fence device on the video surveillance system. Once the battery within the range of the electronic fence (in the green box below) is removed, the system immediately alerts the relevant management to prevent the waste lead battery in the warehouse from entering the illegal channel.
4. APP supervision mode of battery chain
Based on the technology of battery life cycle Internet of things management system, the battery chain APP is developed. The new battery sales, the recovery information of the waste battery, the transfer and storage information of the temporary storage point and the transfer station, and the utilization and disposal information of the recycled lead plant are all input into the system through the battery chain APP, to meet the management needs of different users. It has been running in Beijing, Tianjin, Fujian and other places for one year.
Through APP, government regulators can keep abreast of all local waste lead battery recycling operations, including the number of batteries sold and recycled, the number of batteries in and out of storage, the source and destination of batteries, and the supervision of the whole process of recycling of waste batteries.
Develop the green supply chain business of upstream and downstream enterprises
1. Establishment of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Battery Environmental Protection Industry Alliance
On February 3, 2018, we jointly established the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Battery Environmental Protection Industry Alliance with the upstream and downstream enterprises, scientific research institutions and industry associations of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei battery industry. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Alliance comprehensively investigates the current situation of lead battery production and renewable lead enterprises in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei and surrounding areas, fully understands the demands of enterprises, and strives to solve the bottleneck of lead battery recovery tax and the difficult problem of cross-provincial transfer examination and approval. The purpose of this paper is to lay a foundation for standardizing the recovery market order of waste lead battery in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, strengthening the communication and cooperation between upstream and downstream enterprises of supply chain, and constructing the green supply chain system of lead battery in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
2. Building a model project of green supply chain for lead-acid battery
With the deepening of the construction of battery recovery system, battery production and recycled lead enterprises should give full play to the channel advantages of battery production enterprises by strengthening cooperation. Jointly create the battery "production-recovery-recycling" green supply chain cycle development model, improve the battery production, recycling market standardized management level.
Analysis and Prospect of "bottleneck"
On the one hand, the pilot recovery work involves the linkage of local environmental protection, industrial credit, transportation, finance, industry and commerce, public security, and the coordination of cross-provincial environmental protection and transportation departments. At present, there is still a certain degree of communication difficulty and coordination lag. Especially in the cross-provincial transfer of waste lead batteries, there are still some problems, such as cumbersome procedures, long cycle and so on. On the other hand, there are still some differences in the pilot recovery work, from the introduction of state ministries and commissions, to the implementation of provincial departments, and then to the implementation at the county and municipal levels, resulting in the inability to unify the policies and programs of various regions. It brings some difficulties for many provinces and cities to carry out battery recovery pilot enterprises to apply for qualification and carry out business.
Although the recovery pilot work has exempted some qualifications and transport management requirements of practitioners, the tax bottleneck in the process of implementation has not been resolved, and 16% of the value-added tax without input deduction has become an important obstacle to the recovery work of pilot enterprises.
There is fierce competition between standardized recycling enterprises and traditional social recycling practitioners. With the overall upgrading of environmental protection and public security crackdown, illegal social source recovery channels will be gradually banned or formalized, but at present, the market competition pressure brought by 20 ~ 300000 individual recycling practitioners in the country is still the mainstream.
Finally, Shen Wenxiang made a prospect for the future of lead-acid batteries. He believes that with the increasing attention paid to the recovery and utilization of lead-acid batteries from the State Council to various ministries and commissions, from the state to the local level, The whole life cycle supervision of lead-acid battery has become an inevitable trend, and the combination of "recovery system (ground network) + Internet of things platform (Skynet)" has become an important starting point for government supervision and enterprise internal control. The advantages of green supply chain system in solving competition and capital pressure will be gradually highlighted, and it will become the optimal scheme for enterprises to make profits under the current fiscal and taxation policy. In February 2019, the solid Department of the Ministry of Ecological Environment and the solid Management Center organized a seminar on centralized collection and trans-regional transport system for lead battery production enterprises in 20 pilot provinces and cities. 2019 will be the first year of the pilot system of lead battery collection and transfer in China, and the pilot work of battery recovery in various provinces and cities will be carried out in an all-round way.