Over the years, lead batteries have been widely used in automobiles, motorcycles, electric bicycles, urban rail transit, communications, power, mining, military, ships, aviation and other fields, and have played an indispensable role in the national economy. At the 2019 (14th) Shanghai lead and Zinc Summit hosted by Shanghai Nonferrous Network, Mr. Cao Guoqing, senior expert of the Institute of Power supply of Light Industry, from the current situation of industry development, output and lead consumption, waste battery production and recycled lead production, market demand dynamics, environmental protection status and existing problems, industrial policy and environmental economic policy, The recovery and transfer of waste lead battery and other aspects for everyone to analyze the dynamics and prospects of the lead battery industry.
The production of lead-acid batteries in China has declined slightly after 2014
Increasing trend of recycled lead production in China
Incomplete statistics of productivity distribution of regenerated lead
Lead-acid battery is widely used in transportation, communication, electric power, military, navigation, aviation and other fields. Lead-acid battery has played an indispensable and important role. It is a key component of wind power generation and solar photovoltaic energy storage system, and it is an important part of the emerging strategic industry.
Effect of Lithium Ion Battery on lead Battery Market
1. Car production decreased and ownership increased in 2018
2. Production and sales of new energy vehicles are increasing rapidly
3. Four wheels: trend of lithium battery for low speed electric vehicles
4. Tricycles: electric tricycles, electric walkers for the elderly, electric cars for the disabled
5. Two rounds: matching trend of Lithium Battery for Electric Bicycle
6. Fixed: communication base station battery step by step using power battery
Number of motor vehicles in China
Production and sales of New Energy vehicles in China from 2010 to 2018
Ownership of electric vehicles
Influence of low Speed vehicle Standard on matching Battery
In April 2016, the national standard "Technical conditions for four-wheeled low Speed Electric passenger vehicles" was set up to solicit opinions from the public. After synthesizing the opinions, full discussion, communication and coordination of all parties, the National Standards Commission formally established the project in October 2016 and issued the formulation plan of the recommended national standard of "Technical conditions for four-wheel low-speed electric vehicles" (project number 20161682-T-339). According to the recommended national standard of "Technical conditions of four-wheel low-speed electric vehicle", it is proposed that the specific energy of power battery system should not be less than 70Whg / kg. The whole vehicle preparation mass is less than 750kg, and the ratio of the power battery system mass to the vehicle preparation mass is not more than 30% (that is, the battery system weight should be lower than 225kg).
According to the requirements of battery energy density performance and battery weight in the standard of low speed electric vehicle, lithium ion battery will replace lead battery. According to the adjustment scheme of low-speed electric vehicle market in Shandong and Jiangsu, after the transition period, the power lithium-ion battery will show a good development prospect.
Influence of Electric Bicycle Standard on supporting Battery
The mandatory national standard of "Technical Specification for Electric Bicycle Safety" (GB17761-2018) will be formally implemented on April 15, 2019, and electric bicycle enterprises are actively seeking to upgrade their models. According to the technical specification, the electric bicycle must have the pedal riding ability, the maximum design speed does not exceed 25 km/h, vehicle mass (including battery) does not exceed 55 kg, motor power does not exceed 400W, the battery nominal voltage does not exceed 48V and so on.
According to the requirements of the new national standard, the self-weight of vehicles should be less than 55kg and the speed should be less than 25km / h, which will promote the increase of the matching amount of lithium-ion batteries for electric bicycles or reduce the weight (or capacity) of lead-acid batteries for electric bicycles. The early layout and taking advantage of the situation of some leading enterprises of electric bicycles on the road of lithium electrification have promoted the development of the market of lithium batteries for bicycles.
Cascade utilization of decommissioned power battery
In 2017, the number of communication base stations in China reached 6.041 million.
In 2018, Tower has 1.97 million base stations nationwide, and about 54 GWh; 600000 peak-cutting and valley filling stations require batteries, about 44 GWh; 500000 new energy stations require batteries of about 48 GWh. The total battery requirement is about 146GWh. Based on the 6-year replacement cycle of storage station batteries, about 24.3 GWh; of batteries are required per year to build 100000 new base stations per year, and the additional power stations are expected to require about 3 GWh of batteries. Together, batteries are required for a total of about 27 GWh per year.
In 2018, Tower Company "zero procurement" lead-acid battery, the use of decommissioned power battery ladder utilization.
Present situation and existing problems of Environmental Protection
1. Consumption use recovery link: lack of standardized recovery system, waste battery collection link has the problems of waste acid pollution, flow to small smelting, fiscal and tax loss.
2. The link of regeneration treatment: overcapacity, small amount and proportion of regular recovery treatment, large discharge of pollutants from small smelting.
The sources of waste lead batteries are extensive and scattered. In order to seek illegal benefits, some informal enterprises and individuals have repeatedly banned the illegal collection and treatment of waste lead battery pollution, seriously endangering the health of the public and the safety of the ecological environment.
Problems in recovery of waste lead Battery
The recovery market of waste lead battery has been controlled by "swimming" recyclers for a long time, and there are three major problems: "inverted acid" pollution, irregular flow pollution and fiscal and tax loss.
The main results are as follows: (1) the amount of acid poured into the hole of waste battery is 26-280000 tons per year, and the lead pollution is serious.
(2) A large number of waste batteries flow to illegal small smelting, and the lead emission is large.
In 2014, the production of waste lead-acid batteries was about 3.2 million tons, and a total of 30 hazardous waste management license holders across the country recovered 272000 tons of waste lead-acid batteries, accounting for only 8.5 per cent of the total.
In 2015, in 15 provinces and cities, 32 licensed units recovered 566500 tons (about 15 per cent). (3) if calculated according to 70% of the value-added tax, the loss of finance and taxation is nearly 2.7 billion yuan per year.
The problem of Recycling and Recycling treatment
1. The number of recycled lead enterprises is about 300.
2. The output of waste battery is about 4 million tons, and it is reported that 5 million tons?
3. The statistical range of 2018 is 2.06 million tons of recycled lead (33, equivalent to about 3.09 million tons of waste battery disposal capacity);
4. The output of recycled lead in the whole industry in 2018 is 2.25 million tons (equivalent to about 3.38 million tons of waste battery disposal capacity).
5. The total discharge of lead pollutants is large, involving cadmium, arsenic, antimony and waste acid pollutants.
6. There are many point sources of lead pollution, but they are scattered and hidden.
According to the (CMRA) statistics of the recycled Metals Branch of the China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association, In China, the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries: individual retail investors account for 60%, battery retailers account for 18%, car maintenance and 4S stores account for 5%, battery manufacturers account for 8%, recycled lead and professional recovery points account for only 9%.
Industrial Policy and Environmental Protection Economic Policy
On November 7, 2018, the National Bureau of Statistics issued the Strategic emerging Industries Classification (2018) (decree No. 23 of the National Bureau of Statistics). Wind power and solar photovoltaic energy storage batteries [industry number 3849] and waste battery recycling [industry number 4210] are included, so they are an important part of emerging strategic industries.
SEPA released the first batch of "high pollution, high environmental risk" product list in 2008, in which recycled lead was listed.
National Development and Reform Commission "Industrial structure Adjustment guidance Catalog", license category: sealed battery, internal formation; restriction category: external formation; phase-out category: open battery, cadmium-containing lead-acid battery.
Environmental and economic policies related to lead battery recovery
According to the Circular of the State Administration of Taxation of the Ministry of Finance on levying consumption tax on Battery Coatings (Finance and Taxation (2015) No. 16), a consumption tax of 4 per cent has been levied on lead batteries since February 1, 2015.
On December 25, 2016, the State Council issued the implementation Plan of the extended producer responsibility system (issued by the State Office (2016) No. 99)
On July 13, 2017, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Water Resources jointly issued the Ecological Environment Protection Plan for the Yangtze River Economic Belt.
On January 18, 2019, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, in conjunction with the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Transport, jointly issued the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of pollution caused by waste lead batteries
On January 24, 2019, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, in conjunction with the Ministry of Transport, issued the pilot work Program for centralized Collection and Trans-Regional Transport system for lead Battery production Enterprises.