SMM3, 18 March: in the course of 20 years of development, lead-acid batteries have firmly occupied the top spot in the electric vehicle battery market because of their price and safety advantages. It is widely used in the fields of automobile start-up, communication, power battery, energy storage battery and so on. In recent years, the lead-acid battery industry has carried out a series of reforms and rectification, industry reshuffle accelerated, at the same time, lithium batteries have begun to erode the market share of lead-acid batteries. This paper mainly focuses on the status and development trend of lead battery industry, the challenges faced, the problems existing in the recovery process, and the progress of lithium battery substitution. What are the problems to be solved in the replacement of lithium batteries? this paper introduces the grudges and grievances between lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries.
In recent years, with the pull of national related industries and the increase of investment by foreign manufacturers in China, China's lead-acid battery industry has achieved rapid development. China is currently the largest producer and consumer of lead-acid batteries in the world. In the next few years, the lead-acid battery industry will still occupy an important position in the national economy.
The analysis shows that lead-acid batteries will maintain a certain growth rate driven by the continuous upgrading of the industry and the expansion of downstream demand, and lead-acid batteries will still be the mainstream of the battery market in the next 10 years. Globally, the market for lead-acid batteries was $42.994 billion in 2015, which will continue to grow at an annual rate of 2 to 5 per cent, and is expected to reach $54.7 billion by 2022. In 2015, the total income of the main business of battery enterprises above scale in China was 447.355 billion yuan, of which the main income of lead-acid battery was about 126 billion yuan, accounting for 28.17%. In 2017, the main business income of national battery enterprises was 653.83 billion yuan, of which the main income of lead-acid batteries was about 119.5 billion yuan, accounting for 18.28 percent of the total. It can be seen that the sales revenue of lead-acid batteries accounts for a large proportion of the whole battery industry, although it is partially replaced by lithium-ion batteries in the field of energy storage, but it is difficult to shake the market position of lead-acid batteries.
Recovery and existing problems of lead-acid battery
In recent years, the lead-acid battery industry has made remarkable achievements in speeding up the elimination of backward production capacity, improving industrial concentration, promoting transformation and upgrading and green development. Looking at the whole lead-acid battery market, from the point of view of the quantity of competition, the exit barrier, the degree of homogenization, and the level of competition, the lead-acid battery industry is in the mature stage, but in fact, The environmental pollution problems caused by the production and waste of lead-acid batteries have not been cured.
Although enterprises have established a number of lead-acid battery production and recovery bases, but the recovery chaos is still frequent, the environmental pollution problems are one after another, which also exposed the problems existing in the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries. At present, the problem of standard recovery of waste lead-acid batteries needs to be solved urgently.
1. Recovered part
The content of lead plate in lead-acid battery is more than 70%, and the recovery of lead-acid battery in the market is mainly concentrated in this part. Each waste lead-acid battery generally contains about 20% sulfuric acid and suspended lead compounds, and the lead content in the waste electrolysis clarified by static treatment is up to 7-10g/L. After recycling waste lead-acid batteries, many self-employed households simply break the batteries and sell only the electrodes and grid plates with higher lead content, while the lead-containing acid solution, which is more difficult to recover, is dumped directly. This part of acid and lead also cause greater pollution to the environment.
2. Channels for recovery
At present, there is no national and regional recovery network built by battery manufacturers or recycled lead manufacturers in China. The formal recovery rate of waste lead-acid batteries is about 30%, and individuals and other channels account for 70%. Most of these individual channels belong to illegal three non-enterprises, and the flow of waste batteries to non-standard recycled lead enterprises is an important factor leading to lead pollution.
3. Quantity of recovery
Generally speaking, the number of waste lead-acid batteries in China is huge, but the recovery industry of waste lead-acid batteries is in a state of disorder. The total amount of waste lead-acid batteries produced each year is large, while the lead content of general lead-acid batteries is 70% to 80%. According to statistics, more than 90% of the used lead-acid batteries have been recycled, but due to the imperfect recovery mechanism, the flooding of self-employed, most of the lead-containing acid solution is dumped directly. It is estimated that a large amount of lead is discharged directly into the environment every year in the recovery process of lead-acid battery alone.
At present, most of the waste lead battery renewable lead plants in China are backward in technology, small in scale and high in energy consumption, resulting in serious pollution. Small enterprises for recovery of lead-acid batteries mainly adopt traditional smelting processes such as small reflection furnace, blast furnace, cupola, etc., grid and lead mud are mixed together, basically without pretreatment process, and some enterprises even use the original soil kiln and earth furnace for smelting. The environment is seriously polluted.
In recent years, especially from 2017 to this year, with national environmental inspection, environmental protection looks back and the State Council's three-year action plan to win the Blue Sky Defense War. The intensity of environmental protection law enforcement has been unprecedented, and the illegal incidents of lead pollution have been exposed one after another, leading to the increasing attention of our government departments and all sectors of society to the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries and the problems in the production of enterprises. Various government departments have issued a series of policies and measures to further strictly regulate the whole process of recovery and utilization of waste lead-acid batteries and the production of recycled lead enterprises.
According to the "Action Plan" issued by nine ministries, such as the Ministry of Ecological Environment, the Development and Reform Commission, and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China will regard the prevention and control of lead battery pollution as an important part of the battle for pollution prevention and control. We will improve the supervision system of strict prevention at source, strict control of processes, and severe punishment of consequences, severely crack down on illegal and criminal acts involving waste lead batteries, and establish a standardized collection and treatment system of waste lead batteries, so as to effectively curb environmental pollution caused by illegal collection and treatment.
Lead-acid batteries face many challenges
Impact of the new national standard for electric bicycles:
The new national standard of electric bicycle is about to be implemented, and the weight of the whole vehicle does not exceed the limit of 55kg. Will it seriously reduce the lead-acid battery?
The new national standard strictly limits the weight of the whole vehicle of electric bicycles. For lead-acid batteries, the self-weight of the battery is too large (or the energy density is too low) to achieve a breakthrough under the existing technical framework. So if the new national standard model wants to use lead-acid batteries, it can only be at the expense of battery life. Take 48V12Ah lead-acid battery as an example, the weight of this specification battery is usually above 16Kg, which means that the whole car does not contain battery weight should be controlled below 38Kg, and the size of the whole vehicle can not exceed the standard, which poses a great challenge to the design of the vehicle.
According to SMM research, since the early last year, the new national standard draft of electric bicycles, lead battery enterprises on the new national standard, began to carry out "lightweight" technical transformation of lead-acid batteries. Among them, a small number of enterprises have completed the technical transformation test from May to June, and in July, with the implementation of "valve-controlled lead-acid batteries for electric vehicles" (GB/T22199-2017), the batteries after "weight loss" were officially sold to the market in batches. In addition, according to lead battery manufacturers, after the completion of battery "weight loss" technical transformation, the amount of lead used in raw materials in the current month decreased by about 5% compared with that before the technical transformation.
The rise of new energy vehicles makes the road ahead of lead-acid batteries slim?
China is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of lead-acid batteries in the world. Lead-acid battery is also the largest and most widely used battery in the world, but since the outbreak of new energy vehicle industry in 2015, the status of lead-acid battery has been challenged.
It has been reported that since 2015, domestic lead-acid battery output has begun to show a small decline. Mainly because the development of the electric bicycle industry powered by the traditional lead-acid battery has reached the saturation stage, the application of the domestic lead-acid battery has slowed down. With the gradual replacement of the new energy vehicle battery to the traditional automobile lead-acid battery, especially after 2020, its replacement impact and impact will further rise. Therefore, the production and marketing of domestic lead-acid batteries may continue to shrink, and the development of the domestic lead-acid battery industry as a whole may be in a relatively passive pattern.
At the 13th lead-Zinc Summit held by Shanghai Nonferrous Network (SMM), Mr. Zhong Xidang, representative of Guangxi Chaowei Xinfeng Energy Co., Ltd., talked about the bright spots in the development of lead battery industry. This paper puts forward its own views from two aspects: the influence of the development of new energy battery on lead-acid battery and the present situation of comprehensive recovery and utilization of lead-acid battery. Mr. Zhong Xidang said at the meeting that the development of the new energy vehicle industry has become the trend of the times. From January to July 2017, the production and sales of new energy vehicles completed 272000 and 251000 respectively, an increase of 26.2% and 21.5% respectively over the same period last year. Among them, the production and sales of pure electric vehicles were 223000 and 204000 respectively, an increase of 37.8% and 33.6% respectively over the same period last year. Production and sales of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles were 49000 and 47000 respectively, down 8.8 per cent and 12.8 per cent respectively from the same period last year.
Meanwhile, From January 1, 2016, consumption tax will be levied on lead batteries, lithium ion batteries will be exempted from consumption tax, Action Plan for promoting the Development of Automobile Power Battery Industry, Standard conditions for Automobile Power Battery Industry, Policies and regulations such as exemption from vehicle purchase tax for new energy vehicles are also constantly promoting the development of new energy vehicles.
Lithium battery shock:
In recent years, due to the advantages of high specific energy, high specific power, high conversion rate, long life, no pollution and so on, lithium ion battery has been popularized rapidly. its application has gradually changed from portable electronic products and communication tools to the field of dynamic power supply.
With the continuous development of microelectronics technology in the 21st century and the increasing number of miniaturized electronic devices, consumers have higher requirements for power supply, and traditional batteries such as lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more difficult to meet the market demand. The more obvious advantages of lithium-ion batteries are beginning to reach the public.
Compared with the traditional battery, the lithium battery has the advantages of high energy density, high working voltage, light weight, small volume, small self-discharge, no memory effect, long cycle life, fast charging and so on. At the same time, because it does not contain heavy metals such as lead and cadmium, Pollution-free, non-toxic materials, so it is widely used in smart phones, laptops, tablets and other consumer electronic products, as well as new energy vehicles, energy storage and so on.
Since the beginning of this year, with the steady adjustment of the support policy for new energy vehicles, the growth rate of the output of new energy vehicles in China has further stabilized, and the power battery will drive the sustained and rapid growth of the scale of lithium ion batteries in China in the future. At the same time, with the global trend of vigorously developing new energy vehicles, the global market share of China's power battery will continue to increase in the future, especially under the situation of China's continuous introduction of support policies and power battery standards. Lithium battery has a good development prospect.
How is the progress of lithium battery replacement
With the increasing pressure of environmental protection and the policy-oriented support of national policy for lithium batteries, coupled with the continuous high-voltage governance and supervision of the lead-acid battery industry in recent years, the lead-acid battery market continues to be weak.
According to the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, in order to solve the problem of recovery and utilization of power batteries for new energy vehicles, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, together with relevant departments, organized China Tower Corporation to carry out the utilization of power batteries in 2018. We should give full play to the role of the main channel for the recovery and utilization of power batteries, and strengthen innovation in the construction of business models, research and development of key technologies, research on standards and specifications, and construction of information platform.
As a state-owned large-scale communication infrastructure integrated service enterprise, Tower Company has 1.9 million base stations. For a long time, the base station backup power supply of China Tower Co., Ltd. mainly uses lead-acid batteries, purchasing about 100000 tons of lead-acid batteries every year. Lead-acid battery has some shortcomings, such as short service life, low performance, containing a lot of heavy metal lead and so on. If it is disposed of improperly, it will cause secondary pollution to the environment. However, compared with lead-acid batteries, lithium batteries have the advantages of high energy density and long service life. For this reason, since 2015, Tower Company has carried out step-by-step experiments of replacing lead-acid batteries with batteries in more than 3000 base stations in 12 provinces and cities. It is fully verified that the safety and technical economy of ladder utilization are feasible.
It is understood that China Tower Co., Ltd. in 2018 has stopped purchasing lead-acid batteries, unified procurement of power lithium batteries as its base station backup power supply. By the end of 2018, about 1.5 GWhs had been used in about 120000 base stations in 31 provinces and cities across the country, and about 45000 tons of lead-acid batteries had been replaced. As one of the key units in the recovery and utilization of power batteries for new energy vehicles, this move will have a good demonstration effect on the large-scale utilization of decommissioned lithium batteries.
In addition, according to the tower company's plan, it will continue to expand the scale of cascade battery use in 2019, which is expected to use about 5 GWhs of batteries, replace about 150000 tons of lead-acid batteries, and is expected to absorb more than 50, 000 tons of decommissioned power batteries. We will build 150 recovery service outlets in 17 provinces, cities and regions, develop a variety of application models, such as comprehensive solutions for standby power supplies, break through a number of key common technologies, such as residual value assessment and rapid detection, and improve the system of optimizing technical standards and specifications.
What are the problems to be solved in the replacement of lithium batteries?
"the retirement age for lithium-ion batteries is here, and our recycling mechanism needs to keep up." Zhang Tianren, deputy to the National people's Congress and chairman of the board of directors of Tianneng Group, said so.
"the recovery of lithium batteries cannot follow the old way of recycling lead-acid batteries, and when they are used up, all parties do not care-the producers are regardless of the producers, the recyclers are mercenary, and the processors are only focused on subsidies." Zhang Tianren said that the legislative regulation of lithium battery recycling should be in the lead, and the relevant departments should plan the layout and establish norms in advance.
The old way of lead-acid battery recovery is the development path of "pollution first and then treatment". 70% of the components in lead-acid batteries are lead, which has high recovery and reuse value. At present, the recycling price of waste lead batteries is about 9000 yuan / ton, and the price of lead ingots sold in smelting exceeds 18000 yuan / ton.
However, according to statistics, about 160000 tons of lead are lost in the process of illegal smelting every year, which has become a serious source of risk to pollution sources and people's health. Previously, a joint survey by institutions such as the Sadie Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology showed that 80% of the recovery of waste lead-acid batteries in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was controlled by illegal social sources.
Zhang Tianren told reporters that at present, there are about 4,000 or 5,000 lithium batteries in the battery package of a car, while large passenger cars can have as many as 7,000 or 8,000 lithium batteries. Unlike lead-acid batteries, the positive and negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries are still electrified after scrapping, and improper storage and transportation can cause combustion or positive electrode explosion.
However, at present, there is no excellent technology for lithium battery recovery and treatment in China, and there is no more sophisticated recovery equipment. Zhang Tianren said that if there is no good equipment, it is a relatively backward process to simply break and disassemble the battery. In terms of extraction, if the pure wet process is used, it is very likely to cause pollution again.
A lot of enterprises hear the wind and pay a lot of money for lithium batteries.
Lithium battery and lead-acid battery competition is inevitable, many enterprises have long been moved by the wind, early layout, has begun to pay a lot of money to layout lithium battery.
In February 2016, Ganfeng Lithium Industry and Mengshi Technology announced that they would raise an additional 1.5 billion yuan to improve the lithium industry chain and increase the production of lithium batteries.
That month, Jianrui fire announcement said that the company intends to price 5.2 billion yuan to acquire a 100 per cent stake in Waterma, at the same time, the proposed 9.90 yuan / share issue shares to raise supporting funds of 2.5 billion yuan. Watma, founded in 2002, is one of the earliest power lithium battery enterprises in China to successfully develop lithium iron phosphate new energy vehicle power battery, automobile start-up power supply, energy storage system solution and take the lead in realizing large-scale production and batch application.
In addition, Shengli Precision also announced in February of that year that Hefei Jieshi New Materials Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Suzhou Jieli, plans to purchase 10 lithium ion battery diaphragm production lines and some key equipment. The total is about 930 million yuan.
In March 2016, Ganfeng Lithium Industry announced that the company and Zhongzhi Investment Management Co., Ltd., Suzhou Anyi Power supply Co., Ltd. and its shareholders Xu Yulin signed a "letter of intent." The company and Zhongzhi Investment or its designated related subjects intend to invest 200 million yuan in the form of capital increase to rely on power supply to extend their tentacles to the field of battery power supply.
Just last year, Tianneng, Chaowei, Nandu and other battery factories also continue to expand production capacity in the lithium battery section, which undoubtedly conforms to the general trend of development, and is also hard hit for the development of lead-acid batteries.
What are the future trends?
At present, the disadvantage of lithium battery is that the supporting facilities are not mature, the technical maturity is general, and the cost is high. However, from the perspective of development, lithium battery technology is making rapid progress, the matching is also constantly improving, and the cost is also falling rapidly.
However, because the high current discharge performance of lead-acid battery is better than that of lithium battery, it will be difficult to be replaced by lithium battery as the starting power supply of traditional automobile. Although lead-acid batteries may be replaced by lithium batteries in electric vehicles in the long run, the speed of replacement still depends on the technological maturity of lithium batteries, the rate of decline in costs, and the growth rate of new energy vehicles. If the development is slow and the lithium battery is oversupplied, the lead-acid battery may be impacted quickly. However, as far as the current situation is concerned, the impact of lithium batteries on lead-acid batteries has not yet emerged.
Shanghai Nonferrous Network selection held the 2019 (14th) Shanghai lead and Zinc Summit in Chenzhou, Hunan Province from April 2 to 3. Chenzhou is a famous hometown of non-ferrous metals and rich in mineral resources. SMM gathered the lead and zinc industry market personages, specially invited the industry big shot, held the wonderful industry grand meeting, even though the lead and zinc market change trend.
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