Lead is one of the earlier metals extracted from lead-zinc ores. It is one of the softest heavy metals and one of the metals with large specific gravity. It has blue-gray, hardness 1.5, specific gravity 11.34, melting point 327.4 ℃, boiling point 1750 ℃, good expansibility. Easy to be made into alloys with other metals (such as zinc, tin, antimony, arsenic, etc.).
Zinc extracted from lead-zinc ore is the last of the seven ancient non-ferrous metals (copper, tin, lead, gold, silver, Hg, zinc). Zinc metal has blue and white, hardness 2.0, melting point 419.5 ℃, boiling point 911 ℃, heating to 100 ℃ to 150 ℃, has good compaction, the specific gravity of the embossing is 7.19. The zinc metal has a blue-white, hardness 2.0, melting point 419.5 ℃, boiling point 911 ℃, heating to 100 ℃. Zinc can be made into alloys or zinc-containing alloys with a variety of non-ferrous metals, the most important of which is brass composed of zinc and copper, tin, lead, etc., and die-casting alloys can also be formed with aluminum, magnesium, copper and so on.
History of lead-zinc deposits
The ancestors of the Chinese nation have made important contributions to the mining, smelting and utilization of lead and zinc mines. In ancient China, "lead" was written as "Qi Gong". Lead was used in bronze casting in the middle of the Shang Dynasty (16th-11th century BC), and 99.75% of the lead was found in the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century-771 BC). In ancient times, lead was often added to copper to become alloyed metals, but also used to make lead white, lead and so on. There are two kinds of raw materials for ancient lead smelting, one is lead oxide, mainly white lead ore, the other is sulphide ore, mainly galena. Lu Rong of the Ming Dynasty described the smelting method of silver-bearing lead sulfide ore in Shuyuan miscellaneous notes. In "Tiangong Kaiwu", Song Yingxing mentioned three kinds of lead-zinc minerals mined at that time, one of which was "silver ore lead", which refers to galena symbiotic with sphalerite and so on. The other is "Tongshan lead", which refers to polymetallic deposits containing galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, etc., and the other is "Caojie lead", which may refer to galena with coarse crystals.
Because lead ore mostly contains silver, in ancient times in order to extract silver, so a large number of mining and smelting lead. China was the first country to invent zinc smelting. In ancient times, zinc was called "bonobos lead". Zinc smelting, according to historical records in the 10th century at the latest in the five dynasties has been able to smelting. There are records of zinc smelting in Magu area of Guizhou Province during the period of Tianfu (AD 947), the great ancestor of the Han Dynasty after the five dynasties. Song Yingxing of the Ming Dynasty also described in "Tiangong Kaiwu", using calamine as raw material, smelting with crucible.
During the Ming and Qing dynasties, zinc was mainly used to prepare brass for casting money and making all kinds of utensils. Zinc ingots were exported to Europe around the early 17th century. A ship carrying zinc ingots from Guangzhou sank on a reef in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1745. Some of the zinc ingots were recovered in 1872. The zinc content was analyzed to reach 98.99%. It can be seen that the level of smelting zinc in China was quite high at that time.
Ancient China not only made an important innovation in the smelting and utilization of lead and zinc, but also recognized the production zonation of lead and zinc deposits for a long time. In Guandi several articles, it is recorded that "there are mausoleum stone on top, lead tin red copper under", "lead on top, silver under it". In the exploration of many contemporary lead-zinc deposits, many mining areas have been discovered through ancient ore adit and smelting slag sites.
In the old China, the foundation of lead and zinc industry was weak, only a few small-scale mines and factories, mining, mineral processing, smelting basically indigenous production, the highest annual output, lead 8900t, zinc 7100t. After the founding of New China, the lead and zinc industry has developed rapidly. After more than 60 years of large-scale geological exploration, rich lead and zinc mineral resources have been discovered, a number of large-and super-large lead-zinc mines have been discovered, a large number of state-owned large and medium-sized lead-zinc mines and smelters have been built, and a large production capacity of mining, dressing and smelting has been formed. Since the beginning of this century, the output of lead and zinc in China has ranked first in the world and has become the largest producer of lead and zinc in the world.
Lead and zinc minerals and their classification
Lead and zinc are very close in nature, especially in primary deposits, and often coexist. They have a common source of ore-forming materials and very similar geochemical behavior, have a similar outer electronic structure, have a strong sulfur affinity, and form the same soluble complex. At the same time, the adsorption by Fe-mn, clay or organic matter is also very similar.
The average content of lead in the crust is about 15 × 10 ~ 6, and the average content in related rocks is 7 × 10 ~ 6 in sandstone, 9 × 10 ~ 6 in carbonate rock and 20 × 10 ~ 6 in shale. The average content of zinc in the crust is about 80 × 10 ~ 6, and the average content in related rocks is 105 × 10 ~ 6 in basalt, 60 × 10 ~ 6 in granite, 16 × 10 ~ 6 in sandstone, 20 × 10 ~ 6 in carbonate rock and 95 × 10 ~ 6 in shale.
In nature, there are about 250 kinds of lead and zinc minerals, of which about 1 to 3 are sulfides and sulfates, and galena and sphalerite are the most important.
What are the minerals currently available for industrial use?
Lead industrial minerals-galena (containing 86.6% of lead), stibnite (55.2% of lead), brucite (40.1% of lead), galena (77.6% of lead), lead alum (68.3% of lead), Chromium-lead ore (64.1% lead), phosphate lead ore (76.38% lead), arsenic-lead ore (69.3% lead), vanadium lead ore (73.1% lead), molybdate (56.4% lead), lead-lead ore (64.1%), lead-phosphate (76.38%), arsenic-lead ore (69.3%), vanadium-lead ore (73.1%) and molybdite (56.4%).
Zinc industrial minerals-sphalerite (containing 67.1% zinc), smithsonite (containing 67.1% zinc), heteropolite (containing 54.3% zinc), silicon zinc ore (containing 58.6% zinc), Water zinc ore (containing 59.6% zinc).
Ore industry type
(1) classified by degree of oxidation
Sulphide ore (lead or zinc oxidation rate < 10%), oxidized ore (lead or zinc oxidation rate > 30%), mixed ore (lead or zinc oxidation rate 10% / 30%);
(2) classified by major useful groups:
Lead ore, zinc ore, lead-zinc copper ore, lead-zinc sulfur ore, lead-zinc copper-sulfur ore, lead-tin ore, lead-antimony ore, zinc-copper ore, etc.
(3) classified by structure:
Disseminated ore, dense massive ore, breccia ore, banded ore, veinlets disseminated ore, etc.
(4) classified by genetic type:
Massive sulfide type, Mississippi valley type, contact substitution type, hydrothermal vein type;
(5) Classification by ore-bearing rocks:
Granite type, skarn type, porphyry type, marine volcanic rock type, continental volcanic rock type, carbonate rock type, mudstone-fine clastic rock type, glutenite type. More than 250 kinds of lead and zinc minerals have been found in the earth's crust, and about 1 to 3 are sulfides and sulfates. Galena and sphalerite are the main industrial mineral materials for smelting lead and zinc.
Why are you looking for a lead-zinc mine?
1. It has a wide range of uses.
Lead and zinc are widely used in electrical industry, mechanical industry, military industry, metallurgical industry, chemical industry, light industry, medicine industry and other fields. In addition, lead metals also have more uses in nuclear industry, petroleum industry and other fields. More than 80% of the world's lead is used in the production of lead-acid batteries. Zinc is also an important raw material of non-ferrous metals, which is second only to copper and aluminum in the consumption of non-ferrous metals, has good compression toughness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance, and can be made into alloys with better physical and chemical properties with a variety of metals.
The main products produced by primary zinc enterprises are: metal zinc, zinc-based alloy, zinc oxide, these products are very widely used, mainly in the following aspects:
Used as anti-corrosion coating (such as galvanized sheet), widely used in automotive, construction, shipping, light industry and other industries, accounting for about 46% of the amount of zinc.
Zinc has excellent atmospheric corrosion resistance, so zinc is mainly used in the surface coating of steel and steel structures. After oxidation, a uniform and fine protective layer of basic zinc carbonate ZnCO3o3Zn (OH) 2 oxide film will be formed on the surface of hot dip galvanized alloy for electroplating, which can also prevent the growth of mold. Because of the good atmospheric corrosion resistance of zinc alloy board, western countries have also begun to try to use it directly as roof covering material. It can be used as roof board for as long as 120-140 years, and can be recycled. The service life of using galvanized iron plate as roof material is generally 5 to 10 years.
(2) manufacture of copper alloy
Used in automotive and machinery industries, accounting for about 15% of zinc consumption.
Zinc has suitable mechanical properties. The strength and hardness of zinc itself are not high. After adding alloy elements such as aluminum and copper, its strength and hardness are greatly improved, especially with the emergence of zinc-copper-titanium alloy. Its comprehensive mechanical properties have approached or reached the level of aluminum alloy, brass and gray cast iron. Its creep resistance has also been greatly improved, therefore, zinc-copper-titanium alloy has been widely used in hardware production.
(3) used in casting zinc alloy
Mainly die castings, used in automotive, light industry and other industries, accounting for about 15% of the amount of zinc.
Many zinc alloys have excellent processing properties, and the pass processing rate can reach 60% to 80%. The medium voltage performance is superior, can be deep drawn, and has self-lubricity, prolongs the life of the die, can be welded by brazing or resistance welding or arc welding (need to be in Helium), the surface can be electroplated and painted, and the cutting performance is good. It has superior superplastic properties under certain conditions.
In addition, zinc has good resistance to electromagnetic field. The conductivity of zinc is 29% of that of standard electrical copper. Zinc sheet is a very effective shielding material in the case of radio frequency interference. At the same time, because zinc is non-magnetic, it is suitable for instrument parts, instrument shell and coins. In addition, zinc itself and collision with other metals will not produce sparks, suitable for underground explosion-proof equipment.
(4) used in the manufacture of zinc oxide
Widely used in rubber, coatings, enamel, medicine, printing, fiber and other industries, accounting for about 11% of the amount of zinc.
(5) used in the manufacture of dry cells
In the form of zinc cake and zinc plate, accounting for about 13% of the amount of zinc.
Zinc has suitable chemical properties. Zinc can interact with NH4CI and release H + positive ions. Zinc-manganese dioxide battery makes use of this characteristic of zinc. Zinc alloy is used as the shell of the battery, which is not only the container of the battery electrolyte, but also participates in the battery reaction to form the anode of the battery. In addition, its performance is also widely used in the pharmaceutical industry.
The world lead consumption is mainly concentrated in the fields of lead-acid batteries, chemical industry, lead plates and lead pipes, solders and lead bombs, among which lead-acid batteries are the most important areas of lead consumption. In 2009, lead-acid batteries in the United States, Japan and China accounted for 86%, 86% and 81.4% of lead-acid batteries, respectively.
2. Have a relatively stable consumption
Customs data: imports
Apparent SMM consumption
Where can I find a mine?
1. Go abroad for prospecting
(1) General situation of lead-zinc ore resources in the world.
Lead-zinc ore resources are widely distributed in the world, and are known to be distributed in more than 50 countries. According to the statistical data of (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (2007-2016 of the United States Bureau of Geological Survey, by the end of 2015, the amount of lead (Lead) resources identified in the world is more than 2 billion tons, and the lead reserves are 89 million tons. The amount of zinc (Zinc) resources is 1.9 billion t, and the zinc reserves is 200 million tons. The world's lead-zinc deposits are mainly distributed in Oceania, Asia, North and South America. The countries with more lead and zinc reserves are the United States, Australia, Bolivia, China, Peru, Mexico, India, Kazakhstan, Canada, Russia, Ireland and so on, which together account for about 80% of the world's lead and zinc reserves in 2015. Among them, Australia is the country with the most abundant lead and zinc resources in the world, with lead reserves of 35 million t, accounting for 39.32% of the world's total lead reserves, and zinc reserves of 63 million t, accounting for 31.50% of the world's total zinc reserves. Lead and zinc account for 33.91% of the world's total reserves.
General situation of Zinc Mineral Resources in Major countries in the World from 2006 to 2015 / 10,000 t
(2) Distribution characteristics of lead-zinc ore resources in the world.
According to statistics, there are 58 super-giant lead-zinc deposits (lead + zinc primitive metal reserves > 5 million tons) in the world. Mainly distributed in Australia (10), the United States (7), Canada (6), China (5), Kazakhstan (4) and other countries. The genetic types of the deposits are MVT type, Sedex type, pyrite type and glutenite type, accounting for about 85% of the total lead and zinc reserves in the world, followed by hydrothermal vein type, porphyry type, skarn type and so on.
Schematic diagram of the distribution of supergiant lead-zinc deposits in the world
The concentration area of lead-zinc deposit in Australia: (1) the (McArthur River), reserves of MacArthur River lead-zinc deposit in the eastern margin of Patton trough area are 25.8 million tons, and the average grade of Pb+Zn is 13.6%; (2) the reserves of (Broken Hill) lead and zinc in Brokenhill ore concentration area are at least 55 million tons, and the average grade of Pb+Zn is 25%; (3) there are at least 6 giant-large polymetallic deposits in (Mount Isa), in the inner enclosure of Mount Issa. The reserves of lead and zinc are 11.69 million t and the average grade of lead and zinc is 13.2%. (4) at least four large lead-zinc deposits have been discovered in the Reed volcanic metallogenic belt of Tasmania, with lead-zinc reserves of 8.6 million tons.
North American lead-zinc ore concentration area: 1 the (Red Dog), Pb reserves of the "Red Dog" Orefield in the northwest of Alaska are 6.67 million t, the average grade is 4.3%, the Zn reserves are 24.95 million t, and the average grade is 16.1%; 2 the (CoeurdAlene), lead-zinc reserves of the Cordaland silver-lead-zinc ore belt in the United States exceed 10 million t, and the average grade of lead zinc is 11.8%. 3 the lead-zinc ore concentration area in North America also has (Mississippi River); in the Mississippi Valley ore concentration area. (4) the reserves of lead and zinc in (Kidd Creek), and the average grade of lead and zinc in Kedrick deposit, Canada are 9.52 million t, 6.42% and 6.42%, respectively. 5 the reserves of lead and zinc in (Sullivan), of Sullivan lead-zinc deposit in Canada are more than 20.83 million t, and the average grade of lead zinc is 11.9%. (6) the reserves of lead and zinc ore in Selwyn Basin, Yukon, Canada are 900000 tons, and the reserves of (Howards Pass), lead and zinc in Howard Shankou mining area in the eastern margin of the basin are 8.5 million t, and the average grade of lead zinc is 7.7%. (7) more than 30 deposits have been proved in the Bathurst-Newcastle ore concentration area in Appalachia, Canada. Among them, the lead and zinc reserves of (Brunswick) in Brunswick No. 12 deposit are more than 10.7 million t, and the average grade of lead zinc is 13%. There are about 100 deposits in Newfoundland, mainly medium and small, of which the (Buchans), Pb reserves of Bakens deposit are 234000 t, the average grade is 1.3%, the Zn reserves are 1.08 million t, and the average grade is 6%. 8 the (Crandon), Zn reserves of the Clanton deposit in the Superior structural area are 3.9 million t, with an average grade of 6.5%. 9 the (FlinFlon), Zn reserves of the Flinfron deposit in the Amisk ore belt are 2.48 million t, with an average grade of 4.25%.
South American lead-zinc deposit concentration area: (1) (San Gregorio) lead-zinc reserves of San Gregorio metasomatic deposit in Peru is 6.93 million t, and the average grade of lead zinc is 9.52%; (2) the reserves of lead and zinc in (Antamina) of Antamina skarn deposit in Peru are 5.75 million t, and the average grade of lead and zinc is 10.3%. (3) the (San Cristobal) lead-zinc reserves of the San Cristobar hydrothermal deposit in Bolivia are 5.49 million t, the average grade of lead zinc is 2.12% and the average grade of lead zinc is 2.12%. The (Vazante) lead-zinc reserves of the Vazanti non-sulfide deposit in Brazil are 5.13 million t and the average grade of lead zinc is 18%.
Central Asia lead-zinc ore concentration area: the lead-zinc deposits in Central Asia are mainly concentrated in Kazakhstan and there are mainly three metallogenic belts. The main results are as follows: (1) there are many large polymetallic deposits in the Altai copper-lead-zinc metallogenic belt, of which the (Leninogorsk), lead-zinc reserves of the Leninogorsk deposit are 3.8 million t, and the grade of dense massive ore is 28.8%; The grade of disseminated ore is 5.1% of Pb2.5%,Zn, the reserves of lead and zinc in (Zhuliannov) of Jilianov Orefield are more than 5 million t, and the grade of primary ore is 2.9% of Pb1.7%,Zn. (2) more than 10 lead-zinc deposits have been discovered in the Zhungeer Alatao metallogenic area in the east, of which one metallogenic belt is 150 km long and 20 km wide. The lead-zinc reserves of the Czech deposit are 5.5 million t and the average grade of lead zinc is 11%. (3) the Karatao polymetallic metallogenic belt in the southwest margin is 600km long and tens of kilometers wide, and there are many important ore deposits, of which the (Shalkya), lead-zinc reserves of the Schalkiya super-large lead-zinc deposit are 12.39 million t, and the average grade of lead zinc is 4.13%.
East Asia lead-zinc ore concentration area: (1) the (Komdok), lead-zinc reserves of Chade lead-zinc ore field in Korea are 70 million t, the average grade of lead zinc is 7% 10% 2, the reserves of lead and zinc are 16.1 million t, and the average grade of lead zinc is 8.44%; (3) in the MVT type lead-zinc deposit in Fankou, Guangdong, China, the lead-zinc reserves are 8.29 million t and the average grade of lead zinc is 14.01%. The average grade of lead and zinc is 7.92 million t and the average grade of lead zinc is 8.46% in Changba lead-zinc Orefield, Gansu Province, China. (5) in Dongshengmiao lead-Zinc Mine, Inner Mongolia, China, the reserves of lead and zinc are up to 6.26 million t, and the average grade of lead and zinc is 3.25%. 6 the average grade of lead and zinc in the lead-zinc ore field of Beilu area, Japan is 6.63 million t, and the average grade of lead and zinc is 6.5%.
2. Domestic prospecting
The main results are as follows: (1) General situation of lead-zinc ore resources in China.
According to the China Mineral Resources report (2015), by the end of 2014, a total of 73.849 million tons of lead and 144.861 million tons of zinc had been identified in the country, an increase of 9.6 per cent and 5.5 per cent respectively over 2013. Lead and zinc minerals in China have the characteristics of forming many ore spots and scattered resources. since 1994, they have become the second largest lead and zinc producing country in the world. With the rapid development of national economy, the demand for lead and zinc resources is also increasing. However, with the mining of mines for many years, most of the mine resources have been gradually exhausted, and the output has decreased year by year. In the face of the increasingly prominent contradiction between supply and demand of lead and zinc minerals, how to achieve a breakthrough in prospecting as soon as possible has become a major mission of geological work under the new situation.
General situation of identified Resources and reserves of lead and Zinc Minerals in China (10,000 tons of Metals)
Over the past decade or so, the government has also attached great importance to prospecting, and has carried out special prospecting work, such as "National Project for the Exploration of replacement Resources in crisis Mines," large-scale investigation and deployment of demonstration projects for Land and Resources, "and so on. With the rapid development of geological science, technology and theory, new technology and new methods of joint exploration, deep prospecting has become possible, and has become the only way to achieve a breakthrough in prospecting. The results of special prospecting work show that the effect of deep prospecting is obvious, which shows the great prospecting potential of our country.
(2) the main characteristics of lead-zinc ore resources in China.
The main results are as follows: (1) the large lead deposits account for only 1.5% of the total lead deposits, and the large zinc deposits account for about 4.5% of the total zinc deposits. (2) there are more poor ores and less rich ores. The grade of lead resources is more than 3%, which accounts for only about 1/3 of the total reserves of lead resources, while the grade of zinc ore is relatively high, but the deposits with zinc ore grade less than 4% still account for more than 35%. (3) the exploitable years of lead and zinc reserves and their basic reserves are slightly insufficient, the lead reserves are less than 4 years, and the zinc reserves are less than 5 years; The basic reserves of lead are 5.6 years and the basic reserves of zinc are 7.4 years. There is a lack of reserve resources, which can be used for planning and utilization. (4) the related mines in China's lead and zinc industry are mainly small and medium-sized enterprises. With the rapid development of smelting capacity of lead-zinc ore in China, the import of lead-zinc raw materials is also increasing rapidly.
(3) Distribution characteristics of lead-zinc ore resources in China.
Lead and zinc deposits in China are mainly distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu, Xinjiang, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia and other provinces (regions). The important deposits are Fankou in Guangdong, Dachang in Guangxi, Lengshuikeng in Jiangxi, Qixia Mountain in Jiangsu Province, Shuikou Mountain in Hunan Province, Jinding in Yunnan Province, Daliangzi in Sichuan Province, Changba in Gansu Province, Ketal in Xinjiang, Xitieshan in Qinghai, Dongsheng Temple in Inner Mongolia, etc. The producing areas of lead-zinc deposits are relatively concentrated in Nanling area, Sanjiang area, Qinling-Qilian Mountain area and Langshan-Zaertai area. The main characteristics of the distribution of lead-zinc deposits in China are partial heterogeneity, that is, the distribution of lead-zinc deposits in groups and belts. Zhu Yusheng (2004) divided China into 16 metallogenic provinces. Among them, lead-zinc deposits are mainly distributed in South China lead-zinc metallogenic province, upper Yangtze lead-zinc metallogenic province, lower Yangtze lead-zinc metallogenic province, Sanjiang lead-zinc metallogenic province, Inner Mongolia-Daxinganling lead-zinc metallogenic province, Qinling-Dabie lead-zinc metallogenic province, Qilian lead-zinc metallogenic province, northern margin of North China block lead-zinc metallogenic province, Tianshan Beishan lead-zinc metallogenic province, Altai-Junggar lead-zinc metallogenic province and so on.
Distribution diagram of lead-zinc metallogenic provinces and main lead-zinc ore resources in China
Since the implementation of the strategic action of prospecting breakthrough in 2011, China has made remarkable achievements in prospecting in the past three years. From 2011 to 2013, China increased the reserves of lead and zinc resources by more than 5000 tons, an increase of 19.7 percent compared with the end of 2010. From 2011 to 2013, the lead-zinc mine explored 154 newly discovered mineral areas (9 large and 52 medium), and initially formed a 10-million-ton lead-zinc resource base in Huayuan-Fenghuang, Hunan. A number of non-ferrous metal bases are expected to be formed in Kangluziyuan, Yunnan Town, Zaxikang, Tibet, Wulagian area of Tianshan Mountain in southwestern Xinjiang, Huohuoyun in Xinjiang, Qimantag in Qinghai, and the southern foot of Daxing'an Mountains in Inner Mongolia. According to the data of the Ministry of Land and Resources in 2014, there are 16 newly proved large and medium-sized zinc ore producing areas in China in 2013, with a new zinc ore reserves of 11.832 million tons, which fully shows the advantages and huge prospecting potential of lead-zinc ore resources in China.